Ostrovskaya, R.U., Mirsoev, T.K., Romanova, G.A. et al. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (2001) 132: 959. doi:10.1023/A:1013663126973
Experiments on rats trained passive avoidance task showed that N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolyl-glycyl ethyl ester, peptide analog of piracetam (GVS-111, Noopept) after oral administration retained antiamnesic activity previously observed after its parenteral administration. Effective doses were 0.5-10 mg/kg. Experiments on a specially-developed model of active avoidance (massive one-session learning schedule) showed that GVS-111 stimulated one-session learning after single administration, while after repeated administration it increased the number of successful learners among those animals who failed after initial training. In this respect, GVS-111 principally differs from its main metabolite cycloprolylglycine and standard nootropic piracetam.