Climatic Change

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 509–540

Tree Mortality in Gap Models: Application to Climate Change


  • Robert E. Keane
    • USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research StationFire Sciences Laboratory
  • Mike Austin
    • Division of Wildlife and EcologyCSIRO
  • Christopher Field
    • Department of Plant BiologyCarnegie Institution of Washington
  • Andreas Huth
    • Center for Environmental Systems ResearchUniversity of Kassel
  • Manfred J. Lexer
    • Institute of SilvicultureUniversity of Agricultural Sciences
  • Debra Peters
    • USDA-ARS, Jornada Experimental Range MSC 3JERNMSU
  • Allen Solomon
    • Western Ecology DivisionU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Peter Wyckoff
    • Botany DepartmentDuke University

DOI: 10.1023/A:1012539409854

Cite this article as:
Keane, R.E., Austin, M., Field, C. et al. Climatic Change (2001) 51: 509. doi:10.1023/A:1012539409854


Gap models are perhaps the most widely used class of individual-based tree models used in ecology and climate change research. However, most gap model emphasize, in terms of process detail, computer code, and validation effort, tree growth with little attention to the simulation of plant death or mortality. Mortality algorithms have been mostly limited to general relationships because of sparse data on the causal mechanisms of mortality. If gap models are to be used to explore community dynamics under changing climates, the limitations and shortcomings of these mortality algorithms must be identified and the simulation of mortality must be improved. In this paper, we review the treatment of mortality in gap models, evaluate the relationships used to represent mortality in the current generation of gap models, and then assess the prospects for making improvements, especially for applications involving global climate change. Three needs are identified to improve mortality simulations in gap models: (1) process-based empirical analyses are needed to create more climate-sensitive stochastic mortality functions, (2) fundamental research is required to quantify the biophysical relationships between mortality and plant dynamics, and (3) extensive field data are needed to quantify, parameterize, and validate existing and future gap model mortality functions.

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001