Aiken, L. S., and West, S. G. (1991). Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions, Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 51: 1173–1182.
Bolger, N., and Eckenrode, J. (1991). Social relationships, personality, and anxiety during a major stressful event. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 61: 440–449.
Byrnes, D. M., Antoni, M. H., Goodkin, K., Efantis-Potter, J., Asthana, D., Simon, T., Munajj, J., Ironson, G., and Fletcher, M. A. (1998). Stressful events, pessimism, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells in HIV + Black women at risk for cervical cancer. Psychosom. Med. 60: 714–722.
Carron, A. V., Hausenblas, H. A., and Mack, D. (1996). Social influence and exercise: A meta-analysis. J. Sport Exercise Psychol. 18: 1–16.
Carver, C. S., and Scheier, M. F. (1998). On the Self-Regulation of Behavior, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Carver, C. S., Kus, L. A., and Scheier, M. F. (1994). Effects of good versus bad mood and optimistic versus pessimistic outlook on social acceptance versus rejection. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 13: 138–151.
Clark, E. J., and Rieker, P. P. (1986). Gender differences in relationships and stress of medical and law students. J. Med. Educ. 61: 32–40.
Cohen, F., Kearney, K. A., Zegans, L. S., Kemeny, M. E., Neuhaus, J. M., and Stites, D. P. (1999). Differential immune system changes with acute and persistent stress for optimists vs. pessimists. Brain Behav. Immun. 13: 155–174.
Emmons, R. A., and King, L. A. (1988). Conflict among personal strivings: Immediate and long-term implications for psychological and physical well-being. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 54: 1040–1048.
Endler, N. S., Cox, B. J., Parker, J. D. A., and Bagby, R. M. (1992). Self-reports of depression and state-trait anxiety: Evidence for differential assessment. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 63: 832–838.
Glaser, R., Rice, J., Speicher, C. E., Stout, J. C., and Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1986). Stress depresses interferon production by leukocytes concomitant with a decrease in natural killer cell activity. Behav. Neurosci. 100: 675–678.
Heins, M., Fahey, S. M., and Leiden, L. I. (1984). Perceived stress in medical, law, and graduate students. J. Med. Educ. 59: 169–179.
Helweg-Larsen, M., Sadeghian, P., and Webb, M. S. (2001). The stigma of being pessimistically biased. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. (in press).
Herbert, T. B., and Cohen, S. (1993a). Depression and immunity: A meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 113: 472–486.
Herbert, T. B., and Cohen, S. (1993b). Stress and immunity in humans: A meta-analytic review. Psychosom. Med. 55: 364–379.
House, J. S., Landis, K. R., and Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science 241: 540–545.
Hull, J. G., Tedlie, J. C., and Lehn, D. A. (1992). Moderator variables in personality research: The problem of controlling for plausible alternatives. Person. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 18: 115–117.
Janeway, C. A., and Travers, P. (1997). Immunobiology, 3rd ed., Garland, New York.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., and Glaser, R. (1988). Methodological issues in behavioral immunology research with humans. Brain Behav. Immun. 2: 67–78.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., and Glaser, R. (1991). Stress and immune function in humans. In Ader, R., Felton, D. L., and Cohen, N. (eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology, 2nd ed., Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 849–867.
LaVia, M. F., Munno, I., Lydiard, R. B., Workman, E. W., Hubbard, J. R., Michel, Y., and Paulling, E. (1996). The influence of stress intrusion on immunodepression in generalized anxiety disorder patients and controls. Psychosom. Med. 58: 138–142.
Litt, M. D., Tennen, H., Affleck, G., and Klock, S. (1992). Coping and cognitive factors in adaptation to in vitro fertilization failure. J. Behav. Med. 15: 171–187.
Marshall, G. N., Wortman, C. B., Kusulas, J. W., Hervig, L. K., and Vickers, R. R. (1992). Distinguishing optimism from pessimism: Relations to fundamental dimensions of mood and personality. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 62: 1067–1074.
McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., and Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Profile of Mood States, Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego, CA.
Mullen, B., and Suls, J. (1982). The effectiveness of attention and rejection as coping styles: A meta-analysis of temporal differences. J. Psychosom. Res. 26: 43–49.
Naliboff, B. D., Solomon, G. F., Gilmore, S. L., Fahey, J. L., Benton, D., and Pine, J. (1995). Rapid changes in cellular immunity following a confrontational role-play stressor. Brain Behav. Immun. 9: 207–219.
Neter, E., Taylor, S. E., and Kemeny, M. E. (1999).When the future gets worse: Does optimism undermine, sustain, or buffer psychological adjustment during the progression of HIV? (in preparation).
Peirce, R. S., Frone, M. R., Russell, M., Cooper, M. L., and Mudar, P. (2000). A longitudinal model of social contact, social support, depression, and alcohol use. Health Psychol. 19: 28–38.
Pouchot, J., Grasland, A., Collet, C., Coste, J., Esdaile, J. M., and Vinceneux, P. (1997). Reliability of tuberculin skin test measurement. Ann. Intern. Med. 126: 210–214.
Räikkönen, D., Matthews, K. A., Flory, J. D., Owens, J. F., and Gump, B. B. (1999). Effects of optimism, pessimism, and trait anxiety on ambulatory blood pressure and mood during everyday life. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 76: 104–113.
Reed, G. M., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., Wang, H.-Y. J., and Visscher, B. R. (1994). Realistic acceptance as a predictor of decreased survival time in gay men with AIDS. Health Psychol. 13: 299–307.
Rosenthal, R., and Rosnow, R. L. (1984). Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Scheier, M. F., and Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychol. 4: 219–247.
Scheier, M. F., and Carver, C. S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well-being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. J. Person. 55: 169–210.
Scheier, M. F., and Carver, C. S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognit. Ther. Res. 16: 201–228.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., and Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 67: 1063–1078.
Seeman, T. E. (1996). Social ties and health: The benefits of social integration. Ann. Epidemiol. 6: 442–451.
Segerstrom, S. C. (1996). Perceptions of stress and control in the first semester of law school. Willamette Law Rev. 32: 593–608.
Segerstrom, S. C. (2000). Personality and the immune system: Models, methods, and mechanisms. Ann. Behav. Med. 22: 180–190.
Segerstrom, S. C., Taylor, S. E., Kemeny, M. E., and Fahey, J. L. (1998). Optimism is associated with mood, coping, and immune change in response to stress. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 74: 1646–1655.
Sieber, W. J., Rodin, J., Larson, L., Ortega, S., Cummings, N, Levy, S., Whiteside, T., and Herberman, R. (1992). Modulation of human natural killer cell activity by exposure to uncontrollable stress. Brain Behav. Immun. 6: 141–156.
Smith, T. W., Pope, M. K., Rhodewalt, F., and Poulton, J. L. (1989). Optimism, neuroticism, coping, and symptom reports: An alternative interpretation of the Life Orientation Test. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 56: 640–648.
Sokal, J. E. (1975). Measurement of delayed skin-test responses. N. Engl. J. Med. 293: 501–502.
Spielberger, C. D. (1983). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y), Mind Garden, Redwood City, CA.
Stanton, A. L., and Snider, P. R. (1993). Coping with a breast cancer diagnosis: A prospective study. Health Psychol. 12: 16–23.
Stone, A. A. (1995). Measurement of affective response. In Cohen, S., Kessler, R. C., and Gordon, L. U. (eds.), Measuring Stress, Oxford University Press, New York.
Stone, A. A., Cox, D. S., Valdimarsdottir, H., Jandorf, L., and Neale, J. M. (1987). Evidence that secretory IgA antibody is associated with daily mood. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 52: 988–993.
Stone, A. A., Neale, J. M., Cox, D. S., Napoli, A., Valdimarsdottir, H., and Kennedy-Moore, E. (1994). Daily events are associated with a secretory immune response to an oral antigen in men. Health Psychol. 13: 440–446.
Suls, J., and Fletcher, B. (1985). The relative efficacy of avoidant and nonavoidant coping strategies: A meta-analysis. Health Psychol. 4: 249–288.
Taylor, S. E., and Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychol. Bull. 103: 193–210.
Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T., and Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1996). The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychol. Bull. 119: 488–531.
Watson, D., and Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychol. Bull. 96: 465–490.
Watson, D., and Pennebaker, J. W. (1989). Health complaints, stress, and distress: Exploring the central role of negative affectivity. Psychol. Rev. 96: 234–254.
Watson, D., and Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychol. Bull. 98: 219–235.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., and Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 54: 1063–1070.
Zorrilla, E. P., Redei, E., and DeRubeis, R. J. (1994). Reduced cytokine levels and T-cell function in healthy males: Relation to individual differences in subclinical anxiety. Brain Behav. Immun. 8: 293–312.