Parenting in Battered Women: The Effects of Domestic Violence on Women and Their Children
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
This study integrates an ecological perspective and trauma theory in proposing a model of the effects of domestic violence on women's parenting and children's adjustment. One hundred and twenty women and their children between the ages of 7 and 12 participated. Results supported an ecological model of the impact of domestic violence on women and children. The model predicted 40% of the variance in children's adjustment, 8% of parenting style, 43% of maternal psychological functioning, and 23% of marital satisfaction, using environmental factors such as social support, negative life events, and maternal history of child abuse. Overall, results support the ecological framework and trauma theory in understanding the effects of domestic violence on women and children. Rather than focusing on internal pathology, behavior is seen to exist on a continuum influenced heavily by the context in which the person is developing.
Abidin, R. (1990). Parenting Stress Index, 3rd Edition: Test Manual, Pediatric Psychology Press, Charlottesville, VA.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington, VT.
Achenbach, T. M., and Edelbrock, C. S. (1986). Child Behavior Checklist andYouth Self-Report, Author, Burlington, VT.
Ainsworth, M. D. (1985). Patterns of attachment. Clin.Psychol. 38: 27–29.
American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised, APA, Washington, DC.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, APA, Washington, DC.
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding 3 patterns of preschool behavior. Gen. Psychol. Monogr. 75: 43–88.
Beach, S. R., and O'Leary, K. D. (1993). Dysphoria and marital discord: Are dysphoric individuals at risk for marital maladjustment? J. Marital Fam.Ther. 19: 355–368.
Beardslee, W., Schultz, L., and Selman, R. (1987). Level of social cognitive development, adaptive functioning, and DSM-III diagnoses in adolescent offspring of parents with affective disorders: Implications of the development of the capacity for mutuality. Dev Psychol. 23: 807–815.
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 4: 561–571.
Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. Am. Psychol. 35: 320–335.
Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Dev. 55: 83–96.
Bentler, P. M. and Chou, C. P. (1987). Practical issues in structural modelling. Sociolog. Meth. Res. 16: 78–117.
Bernstein, D. P., Fink, L., Handelsman, L., Foote, J., Lovejoy, M., and Ruggiero, J. (1993). Toward a New Measure of Childhood Trauma: The CTQ, VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY, and Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural Equations With Latent Variables, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. Am. Psychol. 32: 513–531.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Burgess, R. (1978). Child abuse: A behavioral analysis. In Lakey, B. and Kazdin, A. (eds.), Advances in Child Clinical Psychology, Plenum Press, New York.
Burns, D. D., Sayers, S. L., and Moras, K. (1994). Intimate relationships and depression: Is there a causal connection? J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 62: 1033–1043.
Campbell, J. C., Kub, J., Belknap, R. A., and Templin, T. N. (1997). Predictors of depression in battered women. Violence Against Women 3(3): 271–293.
Carmines, E. G., and McIver, J. P. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In Borhnstedt, G. W., and Borgatta, E. F. (eds.), Social Measurement: Current Issues, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.
Cascardi, M., and O'Leary, K. D. (1992). Depressive symptomatology, self-esteem, and selfblame in battered women. J. Fam. Violence 7: 249–259.
Chou, C.-P., and Bentler, P. M. (1995). Estimates and tests in structural equation modeling. In Hoyle, R. H. (ed.), Structual Equation Modeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., and Whitbeck, L. B. (1992). A family process model of economic hardship and adjustment of early adolescent boys. Child Dev. 63: 526–541.
Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., and Whitbeck, L. B. (1993). Family economic stress and adjustment of early adolescent girls. Dev. Psychol. 29: 206–219.
Derogatis, L., and Melisaratos, N. (1983). The Brief Symptom Inventory: An introductory report. Psychol. Med. 13: 595–605.
Dutton, D. G., and Painter, S. (1993). The battered woman syndrome: Effects of severity and intermittency of abuse. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 63: 614–622.
Egeland, B., Sroufe, L. A., and Erickson, M. F. (1983). Developmental consequence of different patterns of maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl. 7: 459–469.
Erel, O., and Burman, B. (1995). Interrelatedness of marital relations and parent-child relations: A meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 118: 108–132.
Fantuzzo, J. W., DePaola, L. M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson, G., and Sutton, S. (1991). Effects of interparental violence on the psychological adjustment and competence of young children. J. Clin. Consult. Psychol. 59: 258–265.
Fondacaro, M. R., and Moos, R. H. (1989). Life stressors and coping: A longitudinal analysis among depressed and nondepressed adults. J. Community Psychol. 17: 330–340.
Graham-Bermann, S. A. (1996). Family worries: The assessment of interpersonal anxiety in children from violent and nonviolent families. J. Clin. Child Psychol. 25: 280–287.
Graham-Bermann, S. A., and Levendosky, A. A. (1998). Traumatic stress symptoms in children of battered women. J. Interpersonal Violence 14: 111–128.
Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Dev. 53: 87–97.
Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children, University of Denver, Denver.
Herman, J. L. (1992a). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. J. Trauma. Stress 5: 377–391.
Herman, J. L. (1992b). Trauma and Recovery, Basic Books, New York.
Holden, G. W., and Ritchie, K. L. (1991). Linking extreme marital discord, child rearing, and child behavior problems: Evidence from battered women. Child Dev. 62: 311–327.
Houskamp, B. M., and Foy, D. W. (1991). The assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in battered women. J. Interpersonal Violence 6: 367–375.
Hughes, H. M. (1988). Psychological and behavioral correlates of family violence in child witnesses and victims. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 58: 77–90.
Hughes, H. M., and Barad, S. J. (1983). Psychological functioning of children in a battered women's shelter: A preliminary investigation. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 53: 525–531.
Hughes, H. M., and Graham-Bermann, S. A. (1998). Children of battered women: Impact of emotional abuse on adjustment and development. J. Emo. Ab. 1: 23–50.
Jaffe, P., Wolfe, D., Wilson, S., and Zak, L. (1986). Family violence and child adjustment: A comparative analysis of girls' and boys' behavioral symptoms. Am. J. Psychiatry 143: 74–77.
Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered Assumptions: Toward a New Psychology of Trauma, The Free Press, New York.
Joreskog, K. G., and Sorbom, D. (1989). LISREL VII: User's Reference Guide, 1st Ed., Scientific Software, Mooresville, IN.
Jouriles, E. N., Murphy, C. M., and O'Leary, K. D. (1989). Interspousal aggression, marital discord, and child problems. J. Consul. Clin. Psychol. 57, 453–455.
Kazdin, A. E., Moser, J., Colbus, D., and Bell, R. (1985). Depressive symptoms among physically abused and psychiatrically disturbed children. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 11: 401–413.
Kemp, A., Green, B. L., Hovanitz, C., and Rawlings, E. I. (1995). Incidence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in battered women. J. Interpersonal Violence 10: 43–55.
Kemp, A., Rawlings, E. I., and Green, B. L. (1991). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in battered women: A shelter sample. J. Trauma. Stress 4: 137–148.
Khan, F. I., Welch, T. L., and Zillmer, E. A. (1993). MMPI-2 profiles of battered women in transition. J. Pers. Assess. 60: 100–111.
Kolbo, J. R. (1996). Risk and resilience among children exposed to family violence. Violence and Vict. 11(2): 113–128.
Kovacs, M. (1985). The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacol. Bull. 21: 995–999.
Lehmann, P. (1997). The development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of child witnesses to mother assault. J. Fam. Violence 12(3): 241–257.
Lempers, J. D., Clark-Lempers, D., and Simon, K. L. (1989). Economic hardship, parenting and distress in adolescence. Child Dev. 60: 25–39.
Levendosky, A. A., and Graham-Bermann, S. A. (1998). The moderating effects of parenting stress on children's adjustment in woman-abusing families. J. Interpersonal Violence 12(3): 383–397.
Levendosky, A. A., and Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2000). Behavioral observations of parenting in battered women. J. Fam. Psychol. 14: 1–15.
Liang, J., Tran, T. V., and Markides, K. S. (1988). Differences in the structure of Life Satisfaction Index in three generations of Mexican Americans. J. Gerontol. 43: S1–S8.
Marshall, L. (1992). Development of the severity of violence against women scales. J. Fam. Violence 7: 103–121.
McCloskey, L. A., Figueredo, A. J., and Koss, M. P. (1995). The effects of systemic family violence on children's mental health. Child Dev. 66: 1239–1261.
McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Dev. 61: 311–346.
McMahon, R. C., Schram, L. L., and Davidson, R. S. (1993). Negative life events, social support, and depression in three personality types. J. Pers. Disorders 7: 241–254.
O'Leary, K. D., Christian, J. L., and Mendell, N. R. (1994). A closer look at the link between marital discord and depressive symptomatology. J. Soc. and Clin. Psychol. 13: 33–41.
Rogosh, R. A., Mowbray, C. T., and Bogat, G. A. (1992). Determinants of parenting attitudes in mothers with severe psychopathology. Dev. Psychopathol. 4: 460–487.
Rossman, B. B. R. (1994). Children in violent families: Diagnostic and treatment considerations. Fam. Viol. Sex. Ass. Bull. 10: 29–34.
Rossman, B. B. R., Bingham, R. D., Dickerson, L. K., Cimbora, D. M., Dexter, R. M., and Balog, S. A. (1993). Trauma symptoms in child witnesses to parental violence. Presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, LA.
Rounsaville, B. J., and Lifton, N. (1983). A therapy group for battered women. In Rosenbaum, M. (ed.). Handbook of Short-Term Therapy Groups, McGraw-Hill, NewYork, pp. 155–179.
Routh, D. K. (1990). Taxonomy in developmental psychopathology: Consider the source. In Lewis, M., and Miller, S. M. (eds.), Handbook of Developmental Psychopathology, Plenum Press, New York.
Rutter, M. (1990). The developmental psychopathology of depression: Issues and perspectives. In Rolf, J., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K. N., and Weintraub, S. (eds.), Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Psychopathology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., and Zax, M. (1982). Early development of children at risk for emotional disorder.Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 47(7, Serial No. 199).
Sameroff, A. J., Thomas, S. L., and Barrett, L. C. (1990). Anxiety and parental childrearing styles. Presented at the Society for Research in Adolescence.
Sato, R. A., and Heiby, E. M. (1992). Correlates of depressive symptoms among battered women. J. Fam. Violence 7: 229–245.
Saunders, D. G. (1994). Post-traumatic stress symptoms profiles of battered women: A comparison of survivors in two settings. Violence Vict. 9: 31–44.
Solarz, A. L. (1987). Follow-up study in a temporary shelter for the homeless: A look at quality of life and social supports. Diss. Abstr. Int. 47(12-B, Pt 1): 5044.
Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New seales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. J. Marr. Fam. 38: 15–28.
Spanier, G. B., and Thompson, L. (1982). A confirmatory analysis of the dyadic adjustment scale. J. Marr. Fam. 44: 731–738.
Sternberg, K. J., Lamb, M. E., Greenbaum, C., Cicchetti, D., Dawud, S., Cortes, R. A., Krispin, O., and Lorey, F. (1993). Effects of domestic violence on children's behavior problems and depression. Dev. Psychol. 29: 44–52.
Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. J. Marr. Fam. 41: 75–88.
Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., and Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family, Anchor Press, Garden City, NJ.
Strickland, B. R. (1992). Women and depression. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 1: 132–135.
Testa, M., Miller, B. A., and Downs, W R. (1993). Women's self-esteem predicts subsequent violent victimization by partner. Presented at the American Psychological Association conference, Toronto, Canada.
van der Kolk, B. A. (1987). Psychological Trauma, APA, Washington, DC.
Vitanza, S., Vogel, L. C. M., Maeshall, L. L. (1995). Distress and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in abused women. Violence. Vict. 10(1): 23–34.
Walker, L. E. (1978). Battered women and learned helplessness. Victimology 2: 525–534.
Walker, L. E. (1983). The battered women syndrome study. In Finkelhor, D., Gelles, R. J., Hotaling, G. T. and Straus, M. A. (eds.), The Dark Side of Families: Current Family Violence Research, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.
Wolfe, D. A., Jaffe, P., Wilson, S. K., and Zak, L. (1985). Children of battered women: The relation of child behavior to family violence and maternal stress. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 53(5): 657–665.
- Parenting in Battered Women: The Effects of Domestic Violence on Women and Their Children
Journal of Family Violence
Volume 16, Issue 2 , pp 171-192
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- domestic violence
- child abuse
- battered women