Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Particle-Fluid Suspensions
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- Ladd, A.J.C. & Verberg, R. Journal of Statistical Physics (2001) 104: 1191. doi:10.1023/A:1010414013942
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This paper reviews applications of the lattice-Boltzmann method to simulations of particle-fluid suspensions. We first summarize the available simulation methods for colloidal suspensions together with some of the important applications of these methods, and then describe results from lattice-gas and lattice-Boltzmann simulations in more detail. The remainder of the paper is an update of previously published work,(69, 70) taking into account recent research by ourselves and other groups. We describe a lattice-Boltzmann model that can take proper account of density fluctuations in the fluid, which may be important in describing the short-time dynamics of colloidal particles. We then derive macro-dynamical equations for a collision operator with separate shear and bulk viscosities, via the usual multi-time-scale expansion. A careful examination of the second-order equations shows that inclusion of an external force, such as a pressure gradient, requires terms that depend on the eigenvalues of the collision operator. Alternatively, the momentum density must be redefined to include a contribution from the external force. Next, we summarize recent innovations and give a few numerical examples to illustrate critical issues. Finally, we derive the equations for a lattice-Boltzmann model that includes transverse and longitudinal fluctuations in momentum. The model leads to a discrete version of the Green–Kubo relations for the shear and bulk viscosity, which agree with the viscosities obtained from the macro-dynamical analysis. We believe that inclusion of longitudinal fluctuations will improve the equipartition of energy in lattice-Boltzmann simulations of colloidal suspensions.