Article

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 1-8

First online:

Western diet, family history of colorectal cancer, NAT2, GSTM-1 and risk of colon cancer

  • M.L. SlatteryAffiliated withDepartment of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine
  • , J.D. PotterAffiliated withFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle
  • , K.-N. MaAffiliated withDepartment of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine
  • , B.J. CaanAffiliated withDivision of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program
  • , M. LeppertAffiliated withDepartment of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine
  • , W. SamowitzAffiliated withDepartment of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine

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Abstract

Objective: In this study we examine the combined effects of Western diet, age at diagnosis, and genetic susceptibility.

Methods: We use data collected as part of an incident case–control study of colon cancer. Family history of colorectal cancer, N-acetyltransferase (NAT2), and gluathione-S-transferase (GSTM-1) are studied with Western diet and age at diagnosis.

Results: A significant interaction between age at time of diagnosis, Western dietary pattern, and family history of colorectal cancer (p for interaction = 0.03) was detected. Those with a family history of colorectal cancer who ate a predominantly Western diet were at increased risk of colon cancer (OR 14.0, 95% CI 3.9–50.1 for ≤55 years; OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.0–29.1 for 56–66 years; OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.2 for ≥67 years) compared to those without a family history of colorectal cancer and low levels of a Western diet. Associations with the Western diet were stronger than individual components of the dietary pattern. Neither NAT2 nor GSTM-1 showed significant interaction with Western diet.

Conclusion: The extent to which diet comprising a Western dietary pattern influences risk of colon cancer is dependent on age. This dietary pattern also appears to modulate the colon cancer risk associated with a family history of colon cancer.

colon neoplasia dietary pattern GSTM-1 meat NAT2 refined grains