, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 115-145

Forest soil carbon inventories and dynamics along an elevation gradient in the southern Appalachian Mountains

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Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC) was partitioned between unprotected and protected pools in six forests along an elevation gradient in the southern Appalachian Mountains using two physical methods: flotation in aqueous CaCl2 (1.4 g/mL) and wet sieving through a 0.053 mm sieve. Both methods produced results that were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. Along the elevation gradient, 28 to 53% of the SOC was associated with an unprotected pool that included forest floor O-layers and other labile soil organic matter (SOM) in various stages of decomposition. Most (71 to 83%) of the C in the mineral soil at the six forest sites was identified as protected because of its association with a heavy soil fraction (> 1.4 g/mL) or a silt-clay soil fraction. Total inventories of SOC in the forests (to a depth of 30 cm) ranged from 384 to 1244 mg C/cm2.The turnover time of the unprotected SOC was negatively correlated (r = –0.95, p < 0.05) with mean annual air temperature (MAT) across the elevation gradient. Measured SOC inventories, annual C returns to the forest floor, and estimates of C turnover associated with the protected soil pool were used to parameterize a simple model of SOC dynamics. Steady-state predictions with the model indicated that, with no change in C inputs, the low- (235–335 m), mid- (940–1000 m), and high- (1650–1670 m) elevation forests under study might surrender ≈ 40 to 45% of their current SOC inventory following a 4°C increase in MAT. Substantial losses of unprotected SOM as a result of a warmer climate could have long-term impacts on hydrology, soil quality, and plant nutrition in forest ecosystems throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains.