Seed Clam Growth: An Alternative Sediment Bioassay Developed During EMAP in the Carolinian Province
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
A new sediment bioassay was developed in conjunction with EMAP studies conducted in the Carolinian Province using juvenile seed clams, Mercenaria mercenaria. This is a sublethal assay, based on growth (total dry weight) after a 7 day incubation period. Seed clam chronic growth assays were significantly more sensitive than amphipod acute toxicity assays. Optimization components include use of hatchery-reared juvenile clams in a rapid growth phase, and size-sieving to ensure a similar size range. Juvenile clam growth was not affected by sediment type, i.e., clams grew well in muddy and sandy sediments. Clams were slightly more sensitive to ammonia than amphipods (NOEC porewater total ammonia 14 - 16 mg/L for clams). Ammonia concentrations above these levels were more common in reference sites, so most of the false positives could be explained by ammonia toxicity. This assay possesses a number of other positive attributes that are desirable for a bioassay, including the requirement for a relatively small sample size (500 ml of sediments), balanced sensitivity, low incremental costs, and high information gained. The seed clam assay is believed to be a valuable tool for EMAP as well as other monitoring efforts for estimating potential chronic toxicity.
- Ankley, G.T., DiToro, D.M., Hansen, D.J., Berry, W.J. (1996) Assessing the Ecological Risk of Metals in Sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15: pp. 2053-2055
- Burgess, R.M., Morrison, G.E. (1994) A Short-Exposure, Sublethal, Sediment Toxicity Test Using the Marine Bivalve Mulinia Lateralis: Statistical Design and Comparative Sensitivity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13: pp. 571-580
- Carr, R.S., Long, E.R., Windom, H.L., Chapman, D.C., Thursby, G., Sloane, G.M., Wolfe, D.A. (1996) Sediment Quality Assessment Studies of Tampa Bay, Florida. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15: pp. 1218-1231
- DeWitt, T.H., Ditsworth, G.R., Swartz, R.C. (1988) Effects of Natural Sediment Features on Survival of the Phoxocephalid Amphipod, Rhepoxynius Abronius. Mar. Environ. Res. 25: pp. 99-124 CrossRef
- Hach, (1994) DR/700 Colorimeter Procedures Manual. Hach Chemical Company, Loveland, CO
- Hamelink, J.L., Landrum, P.F., Bergman, H.L., Benson, W.H. (1994) Bioavailability: Physical, Chemical and Biological Interactions. Lewis Publishers, Ann Arbor
- Hyland, J.L., Herrlinger, T.J., Snoots, T.R., Ringwood, A.H., Van Dolah, R.F., Hackney, C.T., Nelson, G.A., Rosen, J.S. and Kokkinakis, S.A.: 1996, Environmental Quality of Estuaries of the Carolinian Province: 1994. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA 97, 102 pp.
- Kokkinakis, S.A., Hyland, J.L., Mageau, C. and Robertson, A.: 1994, Carolinian Demonstration Project — 1994 Field Operations Manual. August 1994 Draft.
- Long, E.R., MacDonald, D.D., Smith, S.L., Calder, F.D. (1995) Incidence of Adverse Biological Effects Within Ranges of Chemical Concentrations in Marine and Estuarine Sediments. Environ. Management 19: pp. 81-97
- Long, E.R., Robertson, A., Wolfe, D.A., Hameedi, J., Sluane, G. (1996) Estimates of the Spatial Extent of Sediment Toxicity in Major U.S. Estuaries. Environ. Sci. Tech. 30: pp. 3583-3592
- Luoma, S.N. Prediction of Metal Toxicity in Nature From Bioassays: Limitations and Research Needs. In: Tessier, A., Turner Metal, D.R. eds. (1994) Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, pp. 609-659
- Moore, D.W., Bridges, T.S., Gray, B.R., Duke, B.M. (1997) Risk of Ammonia Toxicity During Sediment Bioassays with the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16: pp. 1020-1027
- Ringwood, A.H., Holland, A.F., Kneib, R. and Ross, P.: 1996, EMAP/NS&T Pilot Studies in the Carolinian Province: Indicator Testing and Evaluation in Southeastern Estuaries. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA 102, 115 pp.
- Ringwood, A.H., DeLorenzo, M.E., Ross, P.E., Holland, A.F. (1997) Interpretation of Microtox® Solid-phase Toxicity Tests: The Effects of Sediment Composition. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16: pp. 1135-1140
- Sims, Jerre G. and Moore, David W.: 1995, Risk of Pore Water Ammonia Toxicity in Dredged Material Bioassays. US Army Corps of Engineers, Miscellaneous paper D-95-3, 66 pp.
- Seed Clam Growth: An Alternative Sediment Bioassay Developed During EMAP in the Carolinian Province
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume 51, Issue 1-2 , pp 247-257
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors