, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 247-258

The Human Nm23/Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases

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Biochemical experiments over the past 40 years have shown that nucleoside diphosphate(NDP) kinase activity, which catalyzes phosphoryl transfer from a nucleoside triphosphate toa nucleoside diphosphate, is ubiquitously found in organisms from bacteria to human. Overthe past 10 years, eight human genes of the nm23/NDP kinase family have been discoveredthat can be separated into two groups based on analysis of their sequences. In addition tocatalysis, which may not be exhibited by all isoforms, evidence for regulatory roles has comerecently from the discovery of the genes nm23 and awd, which encode NDP kinases and areinvolved in tumor metastasis and Drosophila development, respectively. Current work showsthat the human NDP kinase genes are differentially expressed in tissues and that their productsare targeted to different subcellular locations. This suggests that Nm23/NDP kinases possessdifferent, but specific, functions within the cell, depending on their localization. The roles ofNDP kinases in metabolic pathways and nucleic acid synthesis are discussed.