To Give a Surprise Exam, Use Game Theory
- ELLIOTT SOBER
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
This paper proposes a game-theoretic solution of the surprise examination problem. It is argued that the game of “matching pennies” provides a useful model for the interaction of a teacher who wants her exam to be surprising and students who want to avoid being surprised. A distinction is drawn between prudential and evidential versions of the problem. In both, the teacher should not assign a probability of zero to giving the exam on the last day. This representation of the problem provides a diagnosis of where the backwards induction argument, which “proves” that no surprise exam is possible, is mistaken.
- Cargile, J.: 1967, 'The Surprise Test Paradox', Journal of Philosophy 64, 550–63. CrossRef
- Eells, E.: 1991, Probabilistic Causality, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Gettier, E.: 1963, 'Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?', Analysis 23, 121–23. CrossRef
- Kyburg, H.: 1961, Probability and the Logic of Rational Belief, Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, Connecticut.
- Mougin, G. and Sober, E.: 1994, 'Betting Against Pascal's Wager', Nous 28, 382–95.
- Olin, D.: 1983, 'The Prediction Paradox Resolved', Philosophical Studies 44, 225–33. CrossRef
- Quine, W.: 1953, 'On a So-Called Paradox', Mind 62, 65–67. Reprinted in The Ways of Paradox and Other Essays, Random House, New York (1966), pp. 19–21.
- Sainsbury, M.: 1988, Paradoxes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Skyrms, B.: 1990, The Dynamics of Rational Deliberation, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
- Sober, E.: 1994, 'The Primacy of Truth-Telling and the Evolution of Lying', in From a Biological Point of View, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Sorensen, T.: 1988, Blindspots, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- To Give a Surprise Exam, Use Game Theory
Volume 115, Issue 3 , pp 355-373
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors