Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 4, Issue 6, pp 445-449

First online:

The Influence of Drugs on Nasal Ciliary Movement

  • Walter A. J. J. HermensAffiliated withCenter for Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leiden University
  • , Frans W. H. M. Merkus

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Drugs in nasal preparations, for local use as well as for systemic use, should not interfere with the self-cleaning capacity of the nose, effectuated by the ciliary epithelium. Many drugs and additives, however, have a negative effect on nasal ciliary function. Examples of ciliotoxic agents are lipophilic and mercuric preservatives, local anesthetics, antihistamines, propranolol, and absorption enhancers such as the bile salts. Cholinergic drugs and β-adrenergic drugs exert a ciliostimulatory effect. It is the purpose of this review to summarize the present knowledge of ciliotoxicity of drugs and additives and to give recommendations for the use of ciliofriendly drugs in nasal preparations.

ciliary movement ciliotoxicity nasal drug delivery