Altshuler, Alan A. (1997). "Bureaucratic Innovation, Democratic Accountability, and Political Incentives." In Alan A. Altshuler and Robert D. Behn (eds.), Innovation in American Government. Washington, DC: Brookings, pp. 38–67.
Ammons, David N. (Spring 1994). "The Role of Professional Associations in Establishing and Promoting Performance Standards for Local Government." Public Productivity & Management Review 17(3), 281–298.
Barzelay, Michael. (1992). Breaking Through Bureaucracy: A New Vision for Managing in Government. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
Behn, Robert D. (July/August 1995). "The Big Questions of Public Management." Public Administration Review 55(4), 313–324.
Bhote, K. R. (Spring 1994). "Dr. W. Edwards Deming: A Prophet with Belated Honor in His Own Country." National Productivity Review 13, 153–159.
Bolman, Lee G. and Terrence E. Deal. (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bouckaert, Geert. (1995). "Improving Performance Measurement." In Arie Halachmi and Geert Bouckaert (eds.), The Enduring Challenges in Public Management: Surviving and Excelling in a Changing World. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 379–412.
Bouckaert, Geert. (Fall 1993). "Measurement and Meaningful Management." Public Productivity & Management Review 17(1), 31–43.
Bowen, David E. and Edward E. Lawler, III. (Spring 1992). "The Empowerment of Service Workers: What, Why, How, and When." Sloan Management Review 31–39.
Caiden, Gerald E. (1988). "The Problem of Ensuring the Public Accountability of Public Officials." In J. G. Jabbra and O. P. Dwivedi (eds.), Public Service Accountability. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, pp. 17–38.
Chi, Keon S. (October 1994). "TQM in State Government: Options for the Future." State Trends & Forecasts 3(2), 2–39.
Clary, Bruce B. (1998). "Coproduction." In Jay M. Shafritz (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, pp. 531–536.
Clinton, Bill, and Al Gore. (September 1995). Putting Customers First '95: Standards for Serving the American People. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Cohen, Steven A. (Fall 1993). "Defining and Measuring Effectiveness in Public Management." Public Productivity & Management Review 17(1), 45–57.
Deller, Steven C., Carl H. Nelson, and Norman Walzer. (Spring 1992). "Measuring Managerial Efficiency in Rural Government." Public Productivity & Management Review 15(3), 355–370.
Deming, W. Edwards. (1986). Out ofthe Crisis. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Deming, W. Edwards. (1993). The New Economics. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Dicke, Lisa A., and J. Steven Ott. (1999). "Public Agency Accountability in Human Services Contracting." Public Productivity & Management Review 22(4), 502–516.
Donahue, John D. (1989). The Privatization Decision: Public Ends, Private Means. New York: Basic Books.
Donnelly, James H., Jr., James L. Gibson, and John M. Ivancevich. (1987). Fundamentals of Management (6th ed.). Plano, TX: Business Publications.
Duesche, John, Deputy Secretary of Defense. (May 4, 1994). Memorandum for Secretaries of the Military Departments, Subject: Depot Competition Operations Policy.
Durst, Samantha L. and Charldean Newell. (March 1999). "Better, Faster, Stronger: Government Reinvention In the 1990s." American Review of Public Administration 61–76.
Dutcher, Joyce S., Carol A. Hayashida, John P. Sheposh, and David K. Dickason. (November 1992). Pacer Share: A Federal Productivity and Personnel Management Demonstration Project. Fourth-year Evaluation Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, Office of Systems Innovation (OS92–12).
Eccles, Robert G. (January-February 1991). "The Performance Measurement Manifesto." Harvard Business Review 131–137.
Epstein, Paul D. (1984). Using Performance Measurement in Local Government: A Guide to Improving Decisions, Performance, and Accountability. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Farazmand, Ali. (1999). "The Elite Question: Toward a Normative Organizational Elite Theory." Administration and Society 31(3)/July: 321–360.
Farazmand, Ali. (2001a). "Privatization or Public Enterprise Management Reform? Implications for Public Management, an Introduction." In Ali Farzamand, (ed.), Privatization or Public Enterprise Reform? Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 4–22.
Farazmand, Ali. (2001b). "Globalization and Privatization: Challenges to Governance and Management of Giant Cities and Communities; a Theoretical and Comparative Analysis." Paper presented at the Annual Conference of American Society for Public Administration, Newark, NJ, March10–13.
GAO. (1997a). Privatization and Competition: Comments on S. 314, the Freedom from Government Competition Act. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office (GAO/T-GGD–97–134).
GAO. (1997b). Privatization: Lessons Learned by State and Local Governments. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office (GAO/GGD–97–48).
GAO. (1992). Quality Management: Survey of Federal Organizations. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office (GAO/GGD–93–9BR).
GAO. (1991). Management Practices: U.S. Companies Improve Performance Through Quality Efforts. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office (GAO/NSIAD–91–190).
Gilbert, G. Ronald. (1992). "Quality Improvement in a Federal Defense Organization." Public Productivity & Management Review 14(1), 65–75.
Gilbert, G. Ronald and Ardel E. Nelson. (1991). Beyond Participative Management: Toward Total Employee Empowerment for Quality. New York: Quorum.
Gore, Al. (1993). The Gore Report on Reinventing Government. New York: Times Books.
Halachmi, Arie, and Kenneth L. Nichols. (eds.), (1997). Enterprise Government: Franchising and Cross-servicing for Administrative Support. Burke, VA: Chatelaine.
Handler, Joel F. 1996. Down from Bureaucracy: The Ambiguity of Privatization and Empowerment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Harmon, Michael M. (1995). Responsibility As Paradox. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Hedley, Timothy P. (March 1998). "Measuring Public Sector Effectiveness Using Private Sector Methods." Public Productivity & Management Review 21(3), 251–258.
Holzer, Marc, and Kathe Callahan. (1998). Government at Work: Best Practices and Model Programs. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
Jabbra, Joseph G. and O. P. Dwivedi. (eds.). (1988). Public Service Accountability. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
Joiner, Brian L. (1994). Fourth Generation Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Juran, Joseph M. (1992). Juran on Quality by Design. New York: Free Press.
Kamensky, John M. (Summer 1993). "Program Performance Measures: Designing a System to Manage for Results." Public Productivity & Management Review 16(4), 395–402.
Kaplan, Robert S. and David P. Norton. (January/February 1996). "Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System." Harvard Business Review 75–85.
Kaplan, Robert S. and David P. Norton. (January/February 1992). "The Balanced Scorecard——Measures that Drive Performance." Harvard Business Review 71–79.
Kearns, Kevin P. (1996). Managing for Accountability: Preserving the Public Trust in Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kearney, Richard C. and Steven W. Hays. (Fall 1998). "Reinventing Government, The New Public Management and Civil Service Systems in International Perspective." Review of Public Personnel Administration 39–54.
Kettl, Donald F. (1995). "Building Lasting Reform: Enduring Questions, Missing Answers." In Donald F. Kettl and John J. DiIulio, Jr. (eds.), Inside the Reinvention Machine: Appraising Governmental Reform. Washington, DC: Brookings, pp. 9–83.
Lenkowsky, Leslie and James L. Perry. (July/August 2000). "Reinventing Government: The Case of National Service." Public Administration Review 298–307.
Light, Paul C. (2000). Making Nonprofits Work: A Report ofNonprofit Management Reform. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute/Brookings Institution.
Light, Paul C. (1998). The Tides of Reform: Making Government Work 1945–1995. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
McNabb, David E. and F. Thomas Sepic. (Summer 1995). "Culture, Climate, and Total Quality Management: Measuring Readiness for Change." Public Productivity & Management Review 18(4), 369–385.
Miranda, Rowan. (March/April 1995). "Bureaucracy, Organizational Redundancy, and the Privatization of Public Services." Public Administration Review 55(2), 193–200.
Moe, Ronald (1996). "Managing Privatization: A New Challenge to Public Administration." In Guy Peters and Bert Rockman (eds.), Agenda for Excellence 2: Administering the State. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
Moran, E. Thomas and J. Fredericks Volkwein. (1992). "The Cultural Approach to the Formation of Organizational Climate." Human Relations 45(1), 19–47.
Morley, Elaine. (1986). A Practitioner's Guide to Public Sector Productivity Improvement. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Nichols, Barbara and Kenneth L. Nichols. (Winter 1993–94). "What You Measure Is What You Get——Organizational Performance Measures Reward Impact, Not Just Activity." SPOD News, 4, 5.
Nyhan, Ronald C. and Herbert A. Marlowe, Jr. (Summer 1995). "Performance Measurement In the Public Sector: Challenges and Opportunities." Public Productivity & Management Review 18(4), 333–348.
Orsburn, Jack D., Linda Moran, Ed Musselwhite, John H. Zenger, (with Craig Perrin). (1990). Self-directed Work Teams: The New American Challenge. Homewood, Ill: Business One Irwin.
Osborne, David and Ted Gaebler. (1992). Reinventing Government. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
Ott, J. Steven. (1998). "Understanding Organizational Climate and Culture." In Stephen E. Condrey (ed.), The Handbook of Human Resource Management In Government. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 116–140.
Ott, J. Steven. (Summer 1995). "TQM, Organizational Culture, and Readiness for Change." Public Productivity & Management Review 18(4), 365–368.
Ott, J. Steven. (1989). The Organizational Culture Perspective. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
Ott, J. Steven, Pitima Boonyarak, and Lisa A. Dicke. (2001). "Public Sector Reform, and Moral and Ethical Accountability: Performance Measurement Technology Cannot Ensure Accountability for Contracted Human Services." Public Integrity 3(3), 277–289.
Ott, J. Steven and Lisa A. Dicke. (Summer 2000). "Important but Largely Unanswered Questions about Accountability in Contracted Public Human Services." International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior 3(3 & 4), 283–317.
Ott, J. Steven and Jay M. Shafritz. (1995). "The Perception of Organizational Incompetence." In Arie Halachmi and Geert Bouckaert (eds.), The Enduring Challenges in Public Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 27–46.
Ott, J. Steven and Jay M. Shafritz. (July/August 1994). "Toward a Definition of Organizational Incompetence: A Neglected Variable in Organization Theory." Public Administration Review 54(4), 370–377.
Pacanowsky, Michael E. and Nick O'Donnell-Trujillo. (June 1983). "Organizational Communication as Cultural Performance." Communication Monographs 50, 126–147.
Peters, B. Guy. (1996). The Future of Governing: Four Emerging Models. Lawrence, Kans: University Press of Kansas.
Prager, Jonas and Swati Desai. (December 1996). "Privatizing Local Government Operations: Lessons from Federal Contracting Out Methodology." Public Productivity & Management Review 20(2), 185–203.
RAND. (June 1990). Pacer Share Demonstration Project: Preliminary Results. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation.
Romzek, Barbara S. and Melvin J. Dubnick. (May/June 1987). "Accountability in the Public Sector: Lessons from the Challenger Tragedy." Public Administration Review 47(3), 227–238.
Rosen, Bernard. (1998). Holding Government Bureaucracies Accountable (3d ed.). Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
Savas, E. S. (1982). Privatizing the Public Sector: How to Shrink Government. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
Sergiovanni, Thomas J. and John E. Corbally. (1984). "Preface." In Thomas J. Sergiovanni and John E. Corbally (eds.), Leadership and Organizational Culture. Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois Press, pp. vii-x.
Shafritz, Jay M. (1992). The Harper Collins Dictionary of American Government and Politics. New York: Harper Collins.
Siehl, Caren and Joanne Martin. (1984). "The Role of Symbolic Management: How Can Managers Effectively Transmit Organizational Culture?" In J. G. Hunt, D. M. Hosking, C. A. Schriesheim, and R. Stewart (eds.), Leaders and Managers: International Perspectives on Managerial Behavior and Leadership. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 227–269.
Smith, Steven R. and Michael Lipsky. (1993). Nonprofits for Hire: The Welfare State in the Age of Contracting. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Sorber, Bram. (Fall 1993). "Performance Measurement in the Central Government Departments of the Netherlands." Public Productivity & Management Review 17(1), 59–68.
Stevens, John M., Anthony G. Cahill, E. Sam Overman, and Lee Frost-Kumpf. (1995). "The Role of Information Systems in Supporting Total Quality Management and Improved Productivity." In Arie Halachmi and Geert Bouckaert (eds.), The Enduring Challenges in Public Management: Surviving and Excelling in a Changing World. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 119–149.
Stout, Russell, Jr. (1980). Management or Control: The Organizational Challenge. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.
Suchman, Edward A. (1967). Evaluative Research: Principles and Practice in Public Service & Social Action Programs. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Trice, Harrison M. and Janice M. Beyer. (1993). The Cultures of Work Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
U.S. Department of Justice. (April 1995). DOJ Manager's Handbook on Developing Useful Performance Indicators (Version 1.1). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Justice Management Division, Management and Planning Staff.
Van Wart, Montgomery. (1998). Changing Public Sector Values. New York: Garland.
Weisbord, Marvin R. (1991). Productive Workplaces: Organizing and Managing for Dignity, Meaning, and Community. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Zohar, Danah. (1997). Re-wiring the Corporate Brain. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Zuboff, Shoshana. (1988). In the Age ofthe Smart Machine. New York: Basic Books/Harper-Collins.