Cost analysis of composite sampling for classification
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
When an environmental sampling objective is to classify all the sample units as contaminated or not, composite sampling with selective retesting can substantially reduce costs by reducing the number of units that require direct analysis. The tradeoff, however, is increased complexity that has its own hidden costs. For this reason, we propose a model for assessing the relative cost, expressed as the ratio of total expected cost with compositing to total expected cost without compositing (initial exhaustive testing). Expressions are derived for the following retesting protocols: (i) exhaustive, (ii) sequential and (iii) binary split. The effects of both false positive and false negative rates are also derived and incorporated. The derived expressions of relative cost are illustrated for a range of values for various cost components that reflect typical costs incurred with hazardous waste site monitoring. Results allow those who are designing sampling plans to evaluate if any of these compositing/retesting protocols will be cost effective for particular applications.
- Boswell, M.T., Patil, G.P. (1990) Composite Sample Designs for Characterizing Continuous Sample Measures Relative to a Criterion. Center for Statistical Ecology and Environmental Statistics, Penn State University, University Park, PA
- Dorfman, R. (1943) The detection of defective members of large populations. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 14: pp. 436-40
- Edland, S.D., van Belle, G. Decreased sampling costs and improved accuracy with composite sampling. In: Cothern, C.R., Ross, N.P. eds. (1994) Environmental Statistics, Assessment and Forcasting. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp. 29-55
- Fabrizio, M.C., Frank, A.M., Savino, J.F. (1995) Procedures for formation of composite samples from segmented populations. Environmental Science and Technology 29: pp. 1137-43
- Gilbert, R.O. (1987) Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York
- Gill, A., Gottlieb, D. (1974) The identification of a set by successive intersections. Information and Control. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp. 20-35
- Lovison, G., Gore, S.D., Patil, G.P. Design and analysis of composite sampling procedures: A review. In: Patil, G.P., Rao, C.R. eds. (1994) Handbook of Statistics, Vol. 12. Environmental Statistics. Elsevier, New York, pp. 103-66
- Sterrett, A. (1957) On the detection of defective members of large populations. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 28: pp. 1033-36
- U.S.EPA (1985a) Verification of PCB Spill Cleanup by Sampling and Analysis. EPA-560/5-85-026.
- U.S.EPA (1985b) Removal Program Representative Sampling Guidance, Vol.1: Soil. PB92-963408.
- U.S.EPA (1989) Methods for Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards, Vol.I: Soils and Solid Media. EPA/230/02-89/042.
- U.S.EPA (1994) Guidance for Planning for Data Collection in Support of Environmental Decision Making Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, Final. EPA QA/G-4.
- U.S.EPA (1995) EPA Observational Economy Series, Volume 1: Composite Sampling. EPA-230-R-95-005.
- Cost analysis of composite sampling for classification
Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Volume 8, Issue 2 , pp 91-107
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- environmental sampling
- human health sampling
- observational economy