, Volume 9, Issue 9, pp 1235-1260

Forest conservation and environmental management in Nepal: a review

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Abstract

This paper provides information on the status of forests and environmental problems related to forestry in Nepal. It aims to integrate the conservation and sustainable management of forests as a part of environmental planning. A critical review of the main environmental problems with prioritization within the forestry sector; thorough review of all forest related documents, strategies, development plans, programs, institutional arrangements, policies mentioned in the Master Plan for Forestry Sector Nepal of 1988, and other relevant documents; identification of major gaps and constraints of forestry policy and plans and current practices of forest conservation and management have been done. The decline in forestry resources in Nepal took place in the past due to lack of appropriate policy to guide the legal, institutional and operational development for the forestry sector. Forestry policy in Nepal, in the past, was shaped by political and economic motives rather than ecological considerations. Policy formulation mechanisms exist in Nepal; however, there is an excessive delay in translating policies into legislation and then into operational rules and administrative orders. There is a need to implement the international obligations by transforming them into regulations in order to make them legally binding. The data to be generated in the coming years in the areas of forestry at both national and international levels suggest that we should revise the research priorities and strategies. Research to add value to the forest resource products has yet been neglected. More attention is required on regular monitoring and evaluation of the projects. A thorough evaluation of the programs and planning for the forestry sector in Nepal is urgently required to update the progress and revise the programs.