Nutritional composition and micronutrient status of home made and commercial weaning foods consumed in Tanzania Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Mosha, T., Laswai, H. & Tetens, I. Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2000) 55: 185. doi:10.1023/A:1008116015796 Abstract
About 50% of young children in Tanzania suffer from protein-energyundernutrition (PEU) while more than 45% of children under the age offive suffer from various micronutrient deficiency disorders. The immediatecause of these conditions is inadequate intake and poor utilization ofnutrients, which begins in the weaning period and amplifies in thesubsequent years. This study was conducted to assess the potential of somehome made and commercial weaning foods commonly consumed in Tanzania tosupply adequate amounts of both macro- and micronutrients as recommendedin the Tanzania and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Standards forcereal/milk-based weaning foods. Six types of home made weaning foods,maize, cassava, millet, sorghum and millet-sardine-peanut composite gruelsand plantain pap, and four types of commercial weaning foods, Cerelac-1,Cerelac-2, Lactogen-1 and Lactogen-2, popularly consumed in Tanzania, werechemically assayed for proximate composition, energy and mineral density.Results of the study indicated that, both the home made and commercialweaning foods were good sources of macro- and micronutrients. Whencompared with the Codex Alimentarius and Tanzania Bureau of Standardsspecifications for weaning foods, both home made and commercial weaningfoods had some shortcomings in terms of nutrient composition and energybalance. Many of the foods were low in fat, Fe, Ca, Zn and P but high incrude fiber, carbohydrate and magnesium. Ca, Fe and Zn were the mostcommon deficient macro/micronutrients in the home made weaning foods. Inspite of these shortcomings, most of the home made and commercial weaningfoods were nutritionally sound since they could provide reasonablepercentages of the recommended daily allowances for macro/micronutrientsand energy. It is suggested that, more efforts must be directed towardsincreasing the concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in the home made weaningfoods through supplementation of the starchy staples with mineral richfoods. Meanwhile, the parents, caretakers and health workers should beeducated on the selection and preparation of nutritious, balanced weaningfoods and good weaning practices.
Macro/micronutrients Proximate composition Tanzania Weaning foods References
UN (1992) United Nations. 2nd Report on the World Nutrition Situation: Global and Regional Results, Vol. 1. Rome: CC/SCN.
Kavishe FP (1992) Development of vitamin A control programmes: An example of Tanzania. NU-News and Health Care in Developing Countries 3: 21–26.
TFNC, Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (1993) Nutrition: Relevant actions in Tanzania. In: Kavishe FP, Mushi SS (eds), TFNC Monograph Series No. 1. Dar es Salaam.
Bureau of Statistics (1997) Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey – 1996. Dar es Salaam: Bureau of Statistics.
Alnwick DJ (1998) Combating micronutrient deficiencies: problems and perspectives. Proc Nutr Soc 57: 137–147.
FAO (1995) Food based approaches for the control and prevention of micronutrient malnutrition in Tanzania, Proposed Plan of Action. Dar es Salaam.
Government of the United Republic of Tanzania, UNICEF (1990) Women and Children in Tanzania – A situational Analysis. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.
Mosha AC, Svanberg U (1983) Preparation of weaning foods with high nutrient density using flour of germinated cereals. UNU Food Nutr Bull 5(2): 10–14.
Mosha TCE, Dakiyo SOS, Laswai H (1998) Breastfeeding, weaning practices and anthropometric status of children in Morogoro district, Tanzania. Ecol Food Nutr 37(4): 309–338.
Golden MH, Ramdath D (1986) Free radicals in the pathogenesis of kwashiorkor. In: Tylor TG, Jenkins NK (eds), Proceedings of the XII International Congress of Nutrition. London: John Libbey.
Hambridge KM (1986) Zinc deficiency in the weanling – how important? Acta Paed Scand 323: 52–58.
Ramdath DD, Golden MHN (1989) Non-haematological aspects of iron nutrition. Nutr Res Rev 2: 29–49.
Walker AF (1990) The contribution of weaning foods to protein energy malnutrition. Nutr Rev Res 3: 25–47.
King FS, Burgess A (1993) Nutrition for Developing Countries, 2nd edn. London: ELBS with Oxford University Press.
Seenappa M (1987) Advantages of Sorghum and Millets in weaning foods. In: Alnwick D, Moses S, Schmidt OG (eds), Proceedings of a Workshop on Household Level Food Technologies for Improving Young Child Feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya.
Mosha AC (1984) Nutrition evaluation of sorghum as affected by germination with main reference to dietary bulk and protein quality. PhD Thesis. Sokoine University of Agriculture.
Lorri W, Svanberg U (1995) An overview of the use of fermented foods for child feeding in Tanzania. Ecol Food Nutr 34: 65–81.
Oyeleke AO, Morton ID, Bender AE (1985) The use of cowpeas (
) in improving popular Nigerian weaning foods. Br J Nutr 54: 343–347.
Mosha AC, Snavberg U (1990) The acceptance and food intake of bulk-reduced weaning foods: The Liganga village study. UNU Food Nutr Bull 12: 69–74.
FAO/WHO (1994) Codex Alimentarius Standards for Foods for Special Dietary Uses (including foods for infants and children), Vol. 4. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program Rome: WHO, Codex Alimentarius Commission.
TBS, Tanzania Bureau of Standards (1983) Tanzania Standard for Processed Cerealbased Weaning Foods – Specification. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Bureau of Standards.
Kikafunda JK, Walker AF, Abeyasekera S (1997) Optimising viscosity and energy density of maize porridges for child weaning in developing countries. Int J Food Sci Nutr 48: 401–409.
AOAC (1995) Official methods of analysis. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Passmore R, Eastwood WA (1986) Human Nutrition and Dietetics 8th edn. Churchill: English Language Book Society.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1980) The Principles and Procedures of Statistics. New York: McGraw Hill.
Barber DJP, Winter PD, Osmond C, Magretts B, Simmonds SJ (1989) Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet ii: 577–780.
Al-Othman AM, Khan MA, Al-Kanhal MA (1997) Nutrition evaluation of some commercial baby foods consumed in Saudi Arabia. Int J Food Sci Nutr 48: 229–326.
Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam (1987) Weaning Food: A New Approach to Small Scale Weaning Food Production from Indigenous Raw Materials in Tropical Countries, 2nd edn. Amsterdam: RTI, Rural Development Programme, Nutrition and Agrotechnology Section.
Khan MA (1989) Desirable dietary patterns for Pakistan. Proceedings of FAO/PARC Workshop on Dietary Guidelines for Food and Agriculture Planning. Islamabad: National Agricultural Research Centre.
Nout MRJ (1993) Processed weaning foods for tropical climates. Int J Food Sci Nutr 43: 213–221.
Weaver LT (1994) Feeding the weaning in the developing world: problems and solutions. Int J Food Sci Nutr 45: 127–134.
Fennema OR (1996) Food Chemistry, 3rd edn. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Whitney EN, Hamilton EMN, Rolfes SR (1990) Understanding Nutrition, 5th edn. New York: West Publishing Company.
Fairweather-Tait S, Hurrell RF (1996) Bioavailability of minerals and trace elements. Nutr Res Rev 9: 295–324.
Khan AM, Kissana AS (1985) Nutritional evaluation of some commercial baby foods consumed in Pakistan. J Sci Food Agric 36: 1271–1274.
Kerr CM, Reisinger KS, Plankey FW (1978) Sodium content of home made baby foods. Paediatrics 62: 331–335.
Stordy BJ, Redfern AM, Morgan JB (1995) Health eating for infants – mother's actions. Acta Paediatr. 84: 733–741.
Khan MA, Eggum BO (1979) Effect of home and industrial processing on protein quality of baby foods and breakfast cereals. J Sci Food Agric 30: 369–376.
Dodd NS, Ratnani J (1991) Mineral content of selected commercial infant and weaning foods. Ind J Dairy Sci 44: 122–126.
William ER, Calienda MA (1984) Nutrition: Princiles, Issues and Applications. New York: McGrawHill.
TBS, Tanzania Bureau of Standards (1983) Tanzania Standard for Infant Formula – Specification. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Bureau of Standards.
NRC, National Research Council (1989) Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Google Scholar Copyright information
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000