, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 5-22

A Similarity-Based Aspect-Graph Approach to 3D Object Recognition

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Abstract

This paper describes a view-based method for recognizing 3D objects from 2D images. We employ an aspect-graph structure, where the aspects are not based on the singularities of visual mapping but are instead formed using a notion of shape similarity between views. Specifically, the viewing sphere is endowed with a metric of dis-similarity for each pair of views and the problem of aspect generation is viewed as a “segmentation” of the viewing sphere into homogeneous regions. The viewing sphere is sampled at regular (5 degree) intervals and the similarity metric is used in an iterative procedure to combine views into aspects with a prototype representing each aspect. This is done in a “region-growing” regime which stands in contrast to the usual “edge detection” styles to computing the aspect graph. The aspect growth is constrained such that two aspects of an object remain distinct under the given similarity metric. Once the database of 3D objects is organized as a set of aspects, and prototypes for these aspects for each object, unknown views of database objects are compared with the prototypes and the results are ordered by similarity. We use two similarity metrics for shape, one based on curve matching and the other based on matching shock graphs, which for a database of 64 objects and unknown views of objects from the database give a recall rate of (90.3%, 74.2%, 59.7%) and (95.2%, 69.0%, 57.5%), respectively, for the top three matches; cumulative recall rate based on the top three matches is 98% and 100%, respectively. The result of indexing unknown views of objects not in the database also produce intuitive matches. We also develop a hierarchical indexing scheme to prune unlikely objects at an early stage to improve the efficiency of indexing, resulting in savings of 35% at the top level and of 55% at the next level, cumulatively.