Anderson R.C., Fralish J.S. and Baskin J.M. (eds), 1999. Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Berendse F., Oomes M.J.M., Altena H.J. and Elberse W.Th. 1992. Experiments on the restoration of species-rich meadows in The Netherlands. Biological Conservation 62: 59–65.CrossRef
Binkley D., Sollins P., Bell R., Sachs D. and Myrold D. 1992. Bio-geochemistry of adjacent conifer and alder-conifer stands. Ecology 73:2022–2033.CrossRef
Boring L.R. and Swank W.T. 1984. The role of black locust (Robinia pseudoacaci
a)in forest succession. Journal of Ecology 72: 749–766.CrossRef
Copenheaver C.A., White A.S. and Patterson III W.A. 2000. Vegetation development in a southern Maine pitch pine-scrub oak barren. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 127: 19–32.CrossRef
D'Antonio C.M. and Corbin J.D. 2003. Effects of plant invaders on nutrient cycling-exploring the link between invasion and development of species effects. In: Canham C., Cole J.J. and Lauenroth W.K. (eds.), Models in ecosystem science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
D'Antonio C.M. and Vitousek P.M. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global changes. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 63–87.
Ehrenfeld J.G., Kourtev P. and Huang W. 2001. Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. Ecological Applications 11: 1287–1300.CrossRef
Evans R.D., Rimer R., Sperry L. and Belnap J. 2001. Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland. Ecological Applications 11: 1301–1310.CrossRef
Finton A.D. 1998. Succession and plant community development in pitch pine-scrub oak barrens of the glaciated northeastern United States. Master's Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.
Foster B.L. and Gross K.L. 1998. Species richness in a successional grassland: effects of nitrogen enrichment and plant litter. Ecology 79: 2593–2602.CrossRef
Gough M.W. and Marrs R.H. 1990. A comparison of soil fertility between semi-natural and agricultural plant communities: impli-cations for the creation of floristically rich grassland on aban-doned agricultural land. Biological Conservation 51: 83–96.CrossRef
Johnson D.W. and Reuss J.O. 1984. Soil-mediated effects of atmo-spherically deposited sulphur and nitrogen. Philosophical Trans-actions of the Royal Society of London series B 305: 383–392.
Mack M.C. and D'Antonio C.M. 1998. Impacts of biological in-vasions on disturbance regimes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 195–198.CrossRef
Mack R.N., Simberloff D., Lonsdale W.M., Evans H., Clout M. and Bazzaz F. 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences and control. Issues in Ecology, No. 5, Spring. Ecological Society of America, Washington, DC, USA.
Maron J.L. and Connors P.G. 1996. A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion. Oecologia 105: 302–312.CrossRef
Maron J.L. and Jefferies R.L. 1999. Bush lupine mortality, altered resource availability, and alternative vegetation states. Ecology 80: 443–454.CrossRef
Maron J.L. and Jefferies R.L. 2001. Restoring enriched grasslands: effects of mowing on species richness, productivity, and nitro-gen retention. Ecological Applications 11: 1088–1100.CrossRef
Marrs R.H. 1985. Techniques for reducing soil fertility for nature conservation purposes: a review in relation to research at Rop-er's Heath, Suffolk, England. Biological Conservation 34: 307–332.CrossRef
Marrs R.H. 1993. Soil fertility and nature conservation in Europe: theoretical considerations and practical management solutions. Advances in Ecological Research 24: 241–300.CrossRef
Marrs R.H, Snow C.S.R., Owen K.M. and Evans C.E. 1998. Heathland and acid grassland creation on arable soils at Minsmere: identification of potential problems and a test of cropping to impoverish soils. Biological Conservation 85: 69–82.CrossRef
Marrs R.H., Gough M.W. and Griffiths M. 1991. Soil chemistry and leaching losses of nutrients from semi-natural grassland and ar-able soils on three contrasting parent materials. Biological Con-servation 57: 257–271.
McCormick J. 1979. The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. pp. 229–242. In: Forman R.T.T. (ed.), Pine barrens: ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.
Milne B.T. 1985. Upland vegetational gradients and post-fire succession in the Albany Pine Bush, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 112: 21–34.CrossRef
Mitchell R.J., Auld M.H.D., Hughes J.M. and Marrs R.H. 2000. Estimates of nutrient removal during heathland restoration on successional sites in Dorset, southern England. Biological Con-servation 95: 233–246.
Mitchell R.S. and Tucker G.C. 1997. Revised checklist of New York State plants. Bulletin No. 490, New York State Museum, Albany, New York, USA.
Montagnini F., Haines B. and Swank W. 1989. Factors controlling nitrification in soils of early successional oak/hickory forests in the Southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management 26: 77–94.CrossRef
Montagnini F., Haines B. and Swank W. 1991. Soil-solution chem-istry in black locust, pine/mixed-hardwoods and oak/hickory forest stands in the southern Appalachians, U.S.A. Forest Ecol-ogy and Management 40: 199–208.
Olsvig L.S., Cryan J.F. and Whitaker R.H. 1979. Vegetation gradi-ents of the pine plains and barrens of Long Island, New York. pp. 283–293. In: Forman R.T.T. (ed.), Pine barrens: ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.
Peloquin R.L. and Heibert R.D. 1999. The effects of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)on species diversity and composition of black oak savanna/woodland communities. Natural Areas Journal 19: 121–131.
Pywell R.F., Webb N.R. and Putwain P.D. 1994. Soil fertility and its implications for the restoration of heathland on farmland in southern Britton. Biological Conservation 70: 169–181.CrossRef
Reich P.B., Grigal D.F., Aber J.D. and Gower S.T. 1997. Nitrogen mineralization and productivity in 50 hardwood and conifer stands on diverse soils. Ecology 78: 335–47.CrossRef
Reschke C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, New York, USA.
Rittner D. (ed.), 1976a. Pine bush, Albany's last frontier. Pine Bush Historic Preservation Project, Albany, New York, USA.
Rittner D. 1976b. Flora of the pine bush. pp. 103–166. In: Rittner D. (ed.), Pine bush, Albany's last frontier. Pine Bush Historic Preservation Project, Albany, New York, USA.
Rizand A., Marrs R.H., Gough M.W. and Wells T.C.E. 1989. Long-term effects of various conservation management treat-ments on selected soil properties of chalk grassland. Biological Conservation 49: 105–112.CrossRef
Schlesinger W.H. 1997. Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change, 2nd edition. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.
Seischab F.K. and Bernard J.M. 1996. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida
Mill.)communities in the Hudson Valley Region of New York. American Midland Naturalist 136: 42–56.CrossRef
Stock W.D., Wienand K.T. and Baker A.C. 1995. Impacts of in-vading N2 fixing Acacia
species on patterns of nutrient cycling in two Cape ecosystems: evidence from soil incubation studies and 15N natural abundance values. Oecologia 101: 375–382.CrossRef
Storer D.A. 1984. A simple high sample volume ashing procedure for determination of soil organic matter. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 15: 759–772.CrossRef
Tallowin J.R.B. and Smith R.E.N. 2001. Restoration of a Cirsio-Molinietum fen on an agriculturally improved pasture. Restoration Ecology 9: 167–78.CrossRef
Tilman D. 1986. Nitrogen-limited growth in plants from different successional stages. Ecology 67: 555–563.CrossRef
Tilman D. and Wedin D. 1991. Dynamics of nitrogen competition between successional grasses. Ecology 72: 1038–1049.CrossRef
Vitousek P.M. and Walker L.R. 1989. Biological invasion by Myrica faya
in Hawai'i: plant demography, nitrogen fixation and ecosystem effects. Ecological Monographs 59: 247–265.CrossRef
Walker L.R. and Vitousek P.M. 1991. An invader alters germina-tion and growth of a native dominant tree in Hawaii. Ecology 72: 1449–1455.CrossRef
Wedin D.A. and Tilman D. 1996. Influence of nitrogen loading and species composition on the carbon balance of grasslands. Science 274: 1720–1723.PubMedCrossRef
Witkowski E.T.F. 1991. Effects of alien Acacias on nutrient cycling in coastal lowlands of the Cape Fynbos. Journal of Applied Ecology 28: 1–15.CrossRef
Zak D.R. and Pregitzer K.S. 1990. Spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen cycling in northern lower Michigan. Forest Science 36: 367–380.
Zak D.R., Hairston A. and Grigal D.F. 1991. Topographic influences on nitrogen cycling within an upland pin oak ecosystem. Forest Science 37: 45–53.