Allan, J.D. and Flecker, A.S. (1993) Biodiversity conservation in running waters. Bioscience
43, 32–43.Google Scholar
Allen, A.P. and O'Connor, R.J. (2000) Hierarchical correlates of bird assemblage structure on northeastern U.S.A. lakes. Environ. Monit. Assess.
62, 15–37.Google Scholar
Arnold Jr., L.C. and Gibbons, C.J. (1996) Impervious surface coverage: The emergence of a key environmental indicator. J. Am. Planning Assoc.
6, 243–259.Google Scholar
Azous, A.L. and Horner, R.R. eds. (2000) Wetlands and Urbanization
. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
B¨ackstr¨om, M., Nilsson, U., H°akansson, K., Allard, B. and Karlsson, S. (2003) Speciation of heavy metals in road runoff and roadside total deposition. Water Air Soil Poll.
147, 343–366.Google Scholar
Baker, L.A. 1992. Introduction to nonpoint source pollution in the United States and prospects for wetland use. Ecol. Eng.
1, 1–26.Google Scholar
Barrow,W.C., Chien, C.C., Hamilton, R.B., Ouchley, K. and Spengler, T.J. (2000) Disruption and restoration of en route habitat, a case study: The Chenier Plain. In Stopover Ecology of Nearctic-Neotropical Landbird Migrants: Habitat Relations and Conservation Implications (F.R. Moore, ed.), pp. 71–87. Studies in Avian Biology No.20. Cooper Ornithological Society, Camarillo, CA.
Booth, D.B., Hartley, D. and Jackson, R. (2002) Forest cover, impervious-surface area, and the mitigation of stormwater impacts. J. Am. Wat. Resour. Assoc.
38, 835–845.Google Scholar
Brady, S.J. and Flather, C.H. (1994) Changes in wetlands on nonfederal rural land of the conterminous United States from 1982 to 1987. Environ. Man.
18, 693–705.Google Scholar
Breault, R.F. and Granato, G.E. (2000) A synopsis of technical issues of concern for monitoring trace elements in highway and urban runoff. USGS Open File Report 00-422. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Burges, S.J., Wigmosta, M.S. and Meena, J.M. (1998) Hydrological effects of land-use change in a zero-order catchment. ASCE J. Hydrolog. Engin.
3, 86–97.Google Scholar
Carpenter, S.R., Caraco, N.F., Correll, D.L., Howarth, R.W., Sharpley, A.N. and Smith, V.H. (1998) Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol. Appl.
8, 559–568.Google Scholar
Conner, W.H., Hill, N.L., Whitehead, E.M., Busbee, W.S., Ratard, M.A., Olzap, M., Smith, D.L. and Marshall, J.P. (2001) Forested wetlands of the southern United States: A bibliography. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-43. U.S.Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC.
Cooper, J.R., Gilliam, J.W., Daniels, R.B. and Robarge, W.P. (1987) Riparian areas as filters for agricultural sediment. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.
51, 416–420.Google Scholar
Craft, C. and Casey, W.P. (2000) Sediment and nutrient accumulation in floodplain and depressional freshwater wetlands of Georgia, USA. Wetlands
20, 323–332.Google Scholar
Croonquist, M.J. and Brooks, R.P. (1993) Effects of habitat disturbance on bird communities in riparian corridors. J. Soil Water Conserv.
48, 65–70.Google Scholar
Culliton, T.J. (1998) Population: Distribution, Density and Growth.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) State of the Coast Report. Silver Spring, MD: [online] URL:.http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/websites/retiredsites/supp sotc retired.html
Cummins, K.W. and Merritt, R.W. (1996) Ecology and distribution of aquatic insects. In An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America (R.W. Merritt and K.W. Cummins, eds.), pp. 74–86. Kendall/Hunt, Inc.Dubuque, IA.
Dale, V.H., Brown, S., Haueber, R.A., Hobbs, N.T., Huntly, N., Naiman, R.J., Riebsame, W.E., Turner, M.G. and Valone, T.J. (2000) Ecological principles and guidelines for managing the use of land. Ecol. Appl.
10, 639–670.Google Scholar
Dunne T. and Leopold, L.B. (1978) Water in Environmental Planning. Freeman, New York.
Ehrenfeld, J.G. (2000) Evaluating wetlands in an urban context. Urban Ecosys.
4, 69–85.Google Scholar
Ehrenfeld, J.G. and Schneider, J.P. (1991) Chamaecyparis thyoides wetlands and suburbanization: Effects on hydrology, water quality and plant community composition. J. Applied Ecol.
28, 467–490.Google Scholar
Ehrenfeld, J.G., Cutway, H.B., Hamilton IV, R. and Stander, E. (2003) Hydrologic description of forested wetlands in northeastern New Jersey, USA-an urban/suburban region. Wetlands
23, 685–700.Google Scholar
Ehrlich, P.R. and Holdren, J.P. (1974) Impact of population growth. Science.
171, 1212–1217.Google Scholar
Faaborg, J., Brittingham, M., Donovan, T. and Blake, J. (1995) Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. In Ecology and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds
(T.E. Martin and D.M. Finch, eds.), pp. 357–380. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.Google Scholar
Faulkner, S.P. (2004) Soils and Sediment: UnderstandingWetland Biogeochemistry. In Wetlands(S. Spray and K.McGlothlin, eds.), pp. 25–46. Rowman Littlefield, Inc., Lanham, MD, 216 p.
Faulkner, S.P. and Richardson, C.J. (1989) Physical and chemical characteristics of freshwater wetland soils.In Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment
(D.A. Hammer, ed.), pp. 41–72. Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
Finkenbine, J.K., Atwater, J.W. and Mavinic, D.S. (2000) Stream health after urbanization. J. Am. Water Resour.Assoc.
36, 1149–1160.Google Scholar
Fisher, S.G. and Likens, G.E. (1973) Energy flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshire: An intergrative approach to stream ecosystem metabolism. Ecol. Mono.
43, 421–439.Google Scholar
Folke, C, Jansson, A., Larsson, J. and Costanza, R. (1997) Ecosystem appropriation by cities. Ambio
26, 167–172.Google Scholar
Freemark, K.E., Dunning, J.B., Hejl, S.J. and Probst, J.R. (1995) A landscape ecology perspective for research, conservation, and management. In Ecology and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds
(T.E. Martin and D.M. Finch, eds.), pp. 381–421. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.Google Scholar
Gilliam, J.W. (1994) Riparian wetlands and water quality. J. Environ. Qual.
23, 896–900.Google Scholar
Groffman, P.M., Boulware, N.J., Zipperer, W.C., Pouyat, R.V., Band, L.E. and Colosimo, M.F. (2002) Soil nitrogen cycle processes in urban riparian zones. Environ. Sci. Technol.
36, 4547–4552.Google Scholar
Groffman, P.M. and Crawford, M.K. (2003) Denitrification potential in urban riparian zones. J. Environ. Qual.
32, 1144–1149.Google Scholar
Groffman, P.M., Bain, D.J., Band, L.E., Belt, K.T., Brush, G.S., Grove, J.M., Pouyat, R.V., Yesilonis, I.C. and Zipperer, W.C. (2003) Down by the riverside: Urban riparian ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
1, 315–321.Google Scholar
Guntenspergen, G.R. and Levenson, J.B. (1997) Understory plant species composition in remnant stands along an urban-to-rural land-use gradient. Urban Ecosys.
1, 155–169.Google Scholar
Harrison, P. and Pearce, F. (2001) AAAS Atlas of Population and Environment.
American Association for the Advancement of Science. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
Hefner, J.M., Wilen, B.O., Dahl, T.E. and Frayer, W.E. (1994) Southeast Wetlands status and trends, mid-1970's to mid-1980's. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA
Hegman, W. and Borer, C. (1999) Estimation of Lake Champlain basinwide nonpoint source phosphorus export. Tech. Rep. 31. UVM Water Resources & Lake Study Center, Burlington, VT.
Horner, R.R., Cooke, S.S., Reinelt, L.E., Ludwa, K.A. and Chin, N.T. (2000a)Water quality and soils. InWetlands and Urbanization
(A.L. Azous and R.R. Horner, eds.), pp. 47–67. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
Horner, R.R., Cooke, S.S., Reinelt, L.E., Ludwa, K.A., Chin, N.T. and Valentine, M. (2000b) In Wetlands and Urbanization
(A.L. Azous and R.R. Horner, eds.), pp. 213–244. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
Howarth, R.W., Billen, G., Swaney, D., Townsend, A., Jaworski, N., Lajtha, K., Downing, J.A., Elmgren, R., Caraco, N., Jordan, T., Berendse, F., Freney, J., Kudeyarov, V., Murdoch, P. and Zhao-Liang, Z. (1996) Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N and P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry
35, 75–139.Google Scholar
Howarth, R.W., Sharpley, A. and Walker, D. (2002) Sources of nutrient pollution to coastal waters in the United States: Implications for achieving coastal water quality goals. Estuaries
25, 656–676.Google Scholar
Hunsaker, C.T. and Levine, D.A. (1995) Hierarchal approaches to the study of water quality in rivers. Bioscience
45, 193–203.Google Scholar
Hunter, R.G. and Faulkner, S.P. (2001) Denitrification potentials in restored and natural bottomland hardwood wetlands. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.
65, 1865–1872.Google Scholar
Hupp, C.R., Woodside, M.D. and Yanosky, T.M. (1993) Sediment and trace element trapping in a forested wetland, Chickahominy River, Virginia.Wetlands
13, 95–104.Google Scholar
Huryn, A.D., Huryn, V.B.N., Arbuckle, C.J. and Tsomides, L. (2002) Catchment land-use, macroinvertebrates and detritus processing in headwater streams: Taxonomic richness versus function. Fresh. Biol.
47, 401–415.Google Scholar
Jordan, T.E., Weller, D.E. and Correll, D.L. (1998) Denitrification in surface soils of a riparian forest: Effects of water, nitrate, and sucrose additions. Soil Biol. Biochem.
30, 833–843.Google Scholar
Knopf, F.L., Sedgwick, J.A. and Cannon, R.W. (1988) Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing. J. Wildl. Manage
. 52, 280–290.Google Scholar
Knutson, M.G., Sauer, J.R., Olsen, D.A., Mossman, M.J., Hemesath, L.M. and Lannoo, M.J. (1999) Effects of landscape composition and wetland fragmentation on frog and toad abundance and species richness in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A. Conserv. Biol.
13, 1437–1446.Google Scholar
Lehtinen, R.M., Galatowitsch, S.M. and Tester, J.R. (1999) Consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation for wetland amphibian assemblages. Wetlands
19, 1–12.Google Scholar
Lindstr¨om, M. (2001) Urban land use influences on heavy metal fluxes and surface sediment concentrations of small lakes. Water Air Soil Poll.
126, 363–383, 2001.Google Scholar
Lockaby, B.G. and Walbridge, M.R. (1998). Biogeochemistry. In Southern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management
(M.G. Messina and W.H. Conner eds.), pp. 149–172. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
Marzluff, J.M. and Ewing, K. (2001) Restoration of fragmented landscapes for the conservation of birds: A general framework and specific recommendations for urbanizing landscapes. Rest. Ecol.
9, 280–292.Google Scholar
McDonnell, M.J. and Pickett, S.T.A. (1990) Ecosystem structure and function along urban-rural gradients: An unexploited opportunity for ecology. Ecology
71, 1232–1236.Google Scholar
McDonnell, M.J., Pickett, S.T.A., Groffman, P., Bohlen, P. and others. (1997) Ecosystem processes along an urban-to-rural gradient. Urban Ecosys.
1, 21–36.Google Scholar
Messina, M.G. and Conner, W.H., eds. (1998) Southern ForestedWetlands: Ecology and Management
. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
Moore, F.R., ed. (2000) Stopover Ecology of Nearctic-Neotropical Landbird Migrants: Habitat Relations and Conservation Implications. Studies in Avian Biology No.20. Cooper Ornithological Society, Camarillo,CA.
Murray, K.S., Rogers, D.T. and Kaufman, M.M. (2004) Heavy metals in an urban watershed in southeastern Michigan. J. Environ. Qual.
33, 163–172.Google Scholar
National Research Council (1993) The Role of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Global Change
. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
National Research Council (2000) Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution
. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
National Research Council (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act
. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
Novotny, V. and Olem, H. (1994)Water Quality: Prevention, Identification, and Management of Diffuse Pollution. Van Nostrand Rheinhold, New York, NY.
Parker, G.R., McFee, W.W. and Kelly. J.M. (1978) Metal distribution in forested ecosystems in urban and rural northwestern Indiana. J. Env. Qual.
7, 337–342.Google Scholar
Paul, J.F., Comeleo, R.L. and Copeland, J. (2002) Landscape metrics and estuarine sediment contamination in the mid-Atlantic and southern New England regions. J. Environ. Qual.
31, 836–845.Google Scholar
Paul, M.J. and Meyer, J.L. (2001) Streams in the urban landscape. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.
32, 333–365Google Scholar
Pouyat, R.V. and Turechek, W.W. (2001) Short-and long-term effects of site factors on net N-mineralization and nitrification rates along an urban-rural gradient. Urban Ecosys.
5, 159–178.Google Scholar
Rabalais, N.N. (2002) Nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. Ambio
31, 102–112.Google Scholar
Rabalais, N.N., Turner, R.E. and Wiseman, W.J. Jr. (2002) Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, a.k.a. "The Dead Zone." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics
33, 235–263.Google Scholar
Rudis, V.A. (1995) Regional forest fragmentation effects on bottomland hardwood community types and resource values. Landscape Ecol.
10, 291–307.Google Scholar
Sanders, R.L. (2002) Sedimentation rates and metal retention in an urban Louisiana swamp. Master's thesis. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 80 p.
Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.H. and Margules, C.R. (1991) Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: A review. Conserv. Biol.
9, 18–32.Google Scholar
Schiffer, D.M. (1989) Effects of highway runoff on the quality of water and bed sediments of two wetlands in central Florida USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4200 U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Schiller, A. and Horn, S.P. (1997)Wildlife conservation in urban greenways of the mid-southeastern United States. Urban Ecosys.
1, 106–113.Google Scholar
Schueler, T. (1994) The importance of imperviousness. Watershed Prot. Tech.
1, 100–111.Google Scholar
Schueler, T. and Holland, H.K. 2000. The Practice of Watershed Protection. Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, Maryland.
Smith, R., Alexander, R.B. and Lanfear, K.J. (1992) Stream water quality in the conterminous United States-Status and trends of selected indicators during the 1980's. In National Water Summary 1990-1991: Stream Water Quality. Water-Supply Paper 2400. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
Stewart, J.S., Wang, L., Lyons, J., Horwatich, J.A. and Bannerman, R. (2001) Influences of watershed, ripariancorridor, and reach-scale characteristics on aquatic biota in agricultural watersheds. J. Am. Wat. Resour. Assoc.
37, 1475–1487.Google Scholar
Tibbets, J. (2002) Coastal cities: Living on the edge. Environ. Health Perspect.
110, A674–A678.Google Scholar
United Nations (2002) World Urbanization Prospects-The 2001 Revision. United Nations Population Division,New York, NY.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2000) Summary Report: 1997 National Resources Inventory (revised December 2000), Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, and Statistical Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (2003) National Resources Inventory 2001 Annual NRI Urbanization and Development of Rural Land. Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC [online] URL:http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/land/nri01/urban.pdf
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) National Water Quality Inventory 2000 Report. Washington, DC.
U.S. Geological Survey (1999) The quality of our nation's waters-Nutrients and pesticides. USGS Circular 1225.
U.S. Census Bureau (2000) United States Census 2000. [online] URL: http://www.census.gov/population/projections/nation/summary/np-t1.txt.
Van Metre, P.C., Mahler, B.J. and Furlong, E.T. (2000) Urban sprawl leaves its PAH signature. Environ. Sci.Technol.
34, 4064–4070.Google Scholar
Vitousek, P.M. 1994. Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change. Ecology
75, 1861–1876.Google Scholar
Wackernagel, M. and Rees, W.E. 1996. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. New Society Publishers, Inc. Gabriola Island, BC.
Wade, T.G., Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D. and Jones, K.B. (2003) Distribution and causes of global forest fragmentation. Conserv. Ecol. 7(2), 7. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss2/art7
Wang, L. and Kanehl, P. (2003) Influences of watershed urbanization and instream habitat on macroinvertebrates in cold water streams. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc.
39, 1181–1196.Google Scholar
Wear, D.N. (2002) Land use. In Southern Forest Resource Assessment. (D.N. Wear and J.G. Greis, eds.), pp. 153–173. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-53. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
Wilson, E.O. (2002) The Future of Life. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. New York, NY.
Winter, J.G., Somers, K.M., Dillon, P.J., Paterson, C. and Reid, R.A. (2002) Impacts of golf courses on macroinvertebrate community structure in Precambrian Shield streams. J. Env. Qual
31, 2015–2025.Google Scholar
Yarie, J.K., Viereck, L., Van Cleve, K. and Adams, P. (1998) Flooding and ecosystem dynamics along the Tanana River. BioScience
48, 690–695.Google Scholar
Zampella, R.A. (1994) Characterization of surface water quality along a watershed disturbance gradient. Water Resour. Bull.
30, 605–611.Google Scholar
Zhu, W.X. and Ehrenfeld, J.G. (1999) Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in suburban and undeveloped Atlantic white cedar wetlands. J. Environ. Qual.
28, 523–529.Google Scholar
Zipperer, W.C., Wu, J., Pouyat, R.V. and Pickett, S.T.A. (2000) The application of ecological principles to urban and urbanizing landscapes. Ecol. Appl.
10, 685–688.Google Scholar