Process-Oriented Worked Examples: Improving Transfer Performance Through Enhanced Understanding
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The research on worked examples has shown thatfor novices, studying worked examples is oftena more effective and efficient way of learningthan solving conventional problems. Thistheoretical paper argues that addingprocess-oriented information to worked examplescan further enhance transfer performance,especially for complex cognitive skills withmultiple possible solution paths.Process-oriented information refers to theprincipled (``why'') and strategic (``how'')information that experts use when solvingproblems. From a cognitive load perspective,studying the expert's ``why'' and ``how''information can be seen as constituting agermane cognitive load, which can fosterstudents' understanding of the principles of adomain and the rationale behind the selectedoperators, and their knowledge about howexperts select a strategy, respectively. Issueswith regard to the design, implementation, andassessment of effects of process-orientedworked examples are discussed, as well as thequestions they raise for future research.
- Atkinson, R.K. & Catrambone, R. (2000) Subgoal learning and the effect of conceptual vs. computational equations on transfer. In: L.R. Gleitman & A.K. Joshi (eds), Proceedings of the 22th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 591–596. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Atkinson, R.K., Derry, S.J., Renkl, A. & Wortham, D. (2000) Learning from examples: Instructional principles from the worked examples research, Review of Educational Research 70: 181–214.
- Byrnes, J.P. (1996) Cognitive Development and Learning in Instructional Contexts. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Catrambone, R. (1996) Generalizing solution procedures learned from examples, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 22: 1020–1031.
- Catrambone, R. (1998) The subgoal learning model: Creating better examples so that students can solve novel problems, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 12: 355–376.
- Chi, M.T.H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M.W., Reimann, P. & Glaser, R. (1989) Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems, Cognitive Science 13: 145–182.
- Cooper, G. & Sweller, J. (1987) Effects of schema acquisition and rule automation on mathematical problem-solving transfer, Journal of Educational Psychology 79: 347–362.
- Gerjets, P., Scheiter, K. & Catrambone, R. (in press) Reducing cognitive load and fostering cognitive skill acquisition: Benefits of category-avoiding examples. In: R. Alterman & D. Kirsch (eds), Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Gerjets, P., Scheiter, K. & Kleinbeck, S. (in press) Instructional examples in hypertext-based learning and problem solving: Comparing transformational and derivational approaches to example design. In: H.M. Niegemann, R. Brünken & D. Leutner (eds), Instructional Design for Multimedia Learning. Münster: Waxmann.
- Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler, P. & Sweller, J. (2003) The expertise reversal effect, Educational Psychologist 38: 23–32.
- Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J.E. & Sweller, J. (2001) When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples, Journal of Educational Psychology 93: 579–588.
- Kester, L., Kirschner, P.A. & Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (in press) The optimal timing of information presentation during mastering a complex skill in science, International Journal of Science Education.
- Kieras, D.E. & Bovair, S. (1984) The role of a mental model in learning to operate a device, Cognitive Science 8: 255–273.
- Mayer, R.E. & Wittrock, M.C. (1996) Problem-solving transfer. In: D.C. Berliner & R.C. Calfee (eds), Handbook of Educational Psychology, pp. 47–62. New York: Macmillan.
- Ohlsson, S. & Rees, E. (1991) The function of conceptual understanding in the learning of arithmetic procedures, Cognition and Instruction 8: 103–179.
- Paas, F. (1992) Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics: A cognitive load approach, Journal of Educational Psychology 84: 429–434.
- Paas, F., Renkl, A. & Sweller, J. (2003) Cognitive load theory and instructional design: Recent developments, Educational Psychologist 38: 1–4.
- Paas, F. & Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (1994a) Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive load approach, Journal of Educational Psychology 86: 122–133.
- Paas, F. and Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (1994b) Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks, Educational Psychology Review 6: 351–372.
- Renkl, A. (1997) Learning from worked-out examples: A study on individual differences, Cognitive Science 21: 1–29.
- Renkl, A. (2002) Worked-out examples: Instructional explanations support learning by selfexplanations, Learning and Instruction 12: 529–556.
- Renkl, A. & Atkinson, R.K. (2003) Structuring the transition from example study to problem-solving in cognitive skills acquisition: A cognitive load perspective, Educational Psychologist 38: 15–22.
- Singley, M.K. & Anderson, J.R. (1989) The Transfer of Cognitive Skill. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Sweller, J. (1988) Cognitive load during problem-solving: Effects on learning, Cognitive Science 12: 257–285.
- Sweller, J., Chandler, P., Tierney, P. & Cooper, M. (1990) Cognitive load as a factor in the structuring of technical material, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119: 176–192.
- Sweller, J., Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. & Paas, F. (1998) Cognitive architecture and instructional design, Educational Psychology Review 10: 251–295.
- Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (1997) Training Complex Cognitive Skills: A Four-Component Instructional Design Model for Technical Training. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
- Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. & Krammer, H.P.M. (1990) The “completion strategy” in programming instruction: Theoretical and empirical support. In: S. Dijkstra, B.H.A.M. Van Hout-Wolters & P.C. Van der Sijde (eds), Research on Instruction: Design and Effects, pp. 45–61. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
- Van Merriënboer, J.J.G., Schuurman, J.G., De Croock, M.B.M. & Paas, F. (2002) Redirecting learners' attention during training: Effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency, Learning and Instruction 12: 11–37.
- Ward, M. & Sweller, J. (1990) Structuring effective worked examples, Cognition and Instruction 7: 1–39.
- Young, R.M. (1983) Surrogates and mappings: Two kinds of conceptual models for interactive devices. In: D. Genter & A.L. Stevens (eds), Mental Models, pp. 35–52. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.
- Process-Oriented Worked Examples: Improving Transfer Performance Through Enhanced Understanding
Volume 32, Issue 1-2 , pp 83-98
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- cognitive load theory
- expert knowledge
- worked examples
- Industry Sectors