Instructional Science

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 83–98

Process-Oriented Worked Examples: Improving Transfer Performance Through Enhanced Understanding

  • Tamara van Gog
  • Fred Paas
  • Jeroen J.G. van Merriënboer
Article

DOI: 10.1023/B:TRUC.0000021810.70784.b0

Cite this article as:
van Gog, T., Paas, F. & van Merriënboer, J.J. Instructional Science (2004) 32: 83. doi:10.1023/B:TRUC.0000021810.70784.b0

Abstract

The research on worked examples has shown thatfor novices, studying worked examples is oftena more effective and efficient way of learningthan solving conventional problems. Thistheoretical paper argues that addingprocess-oriented information to worked examplescan further enhance transfer performance,especially for complex cognitive skills withmultiple possible solution paths.Process-oriented information refers to theprincipled (``why'') and strategic (``how'')information that experts use when solvingproblems. From a cognitive load perspective,studying the expert's ``why'' and ``how''information can be seen as constituting agermane cognitive load, which can fosterstudents' understanding of the principles of adomain and the rationale behind the selectedoperators, and their knowledge about howexperts select a strategy, respectively. Issueswith regard to the design, implementation, andassessment of effects of process-orientedworked examples are discussed, as well as thequestions they raise for future research.

cognitive load theoryexpert knowledgetransferworked examples

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamara van Gog
    • 1
  • Fred Paas
    • 1
  • Jeroen J.G. van Merriënboer
    • 1
  1. 1.Educational Technology Expertise CentreOpen University of the NetherlandsHeerlenThe Netherlands