Sex Roles

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 17–27

Mere Exposure: Gender Differences in the Negative Effects of Priming a State of Self-Objectification


    • Department of PsychologyColorado College
  • Jennifer Y. Gettman
    • Department of PsychologyColorado College

DOI: 10.1023/B:SERS.0000032306.20462.22

Cite this article as:
Roberts, T. & Gettman, J.Y. Sex Roles (2004) 51: 17. doi:10.1023/B:SERS.0000032306.20462.22


Objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) holds that American culture coaxes women to develop observers' views of their bodies. The present study was designed to test whether a state of self-objectification can be automatically activated by subtle exposure to objectifying words. A state of self-objectification or of bodily empowerment was primed by the use of a scrambled sentence task. Women's ratings of negative emotions were higher and their ratings of the appeal of physical sex lower when primed with self-objectification than when primed with body competence. Men's ratings were unaffected by the primes. The results of this study suggest that mere exposure to objectifying media can play a significant role in the initiation of a self-objectified state along with its attendant psychological consequences for women.


Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004