Online Biofilm Monitoring

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A review of online biofilm monitoring techniques is presented focusing on methods based on differential turbidimetry, light scattering, heat transfer, pressure drop, real-time measurement of metabolic products, image analysis, radiation signals (spectroscopy, fluorometry, photoacoustic spectroscopy, etc.), electric and mechanical (vibration) signals. The different methods are compared in terms of their applicability to practical situations and the know detection limits are reported.