The use of the terms ‘lifestyle medicines’ or ‘lifestyle drugs’
- Claus Møldrup
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Aim: over the last 10 decades, ‘lifestyle medicines’ or ‘lifestyle drugs’ have been used with increasing frequency by journalists, politicians, authorities and to some extent by scientists. The objective of this paper is to analyse the quantity and quality of the use of these terms and discuss the implications associated with the labelling of indications and products as lifestyle medicines or lifestyle drugs.
Methods: The findings in this paper are based on an extensive literature review in the databases Medline, Pubmed, Embase and the two most frequently used search engines altavista.com and google.com, as well as the media database LexisNexis.
Results: In the period 1978 to August 2003, the term ‘lifestyle medicines /drugs’ has appeared 3174 times in English language media. In total, 23 different definitions are presented in the scientific literature.
Conclusions: The review of the scientific literature shows that no widely accepted definition of the terms ‘lifestyle medicines’ or ‘lifestyle drugs’ exists. Nevertheless the terms have appeared more than 3000 times in the media (2600 times since 1998), which means that in most cases, the use of the terms ‘lifestyle medicines’ or ‘lifestyle drugs’ are based on the authors’ own assumptions and values. This is problematic, not only in terms of a discourse, where no one knows what forms the basis of the discussion, but also because this at best leads to an uninformed discussion and at worst to harmful conclusions that might stigmatise and discriminate patients. Based on these findings, this paper argues that a clear, widely accepted definition of the terms ‘lifestyle medicines’ or ‘lifestyle drugs’ is essential to avoid potential misunderstandings that might lead to discrimination in the rationing of healthcare resources or stigmatisation of patients.
- Nutton, V. In: Porter, R eds. (1996) The rise of medicine. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 52-82
- Gross P, Hitzler R, Horner A. Zwei Kulturen? Diagnostische und terapeutische Kompetenz im Wandel. [Two cultures: diagnostic and therapeutic competence in a state of change.] Öster Z Soziol Sonderheft Medizinsoziol 1985.
- Brock, D. The use of drugs for pleasure-some philosophical issues. In: Murray, T, Gaylin, W, Macklin, R eds. (1984) Feeling good and doing better: ethics and nontherapeutic drug use. Humana Press, Clifton, New Jersey, pp. 83-106
- Shapiro, MH. (1991) The technology of perfection: performance enhancement and the control of attributes. South California Law Rev 65: pp. 11-13
- Audran, M, Gareau, S, Matecki, F, Durand, F, Chenard, C, Sicart, M (1999) Effects of erythropoietin administration in training athletes and possible indirect detection in doping control. Med Sci Sports Exercise 31: pp. 639-45
- Waddington, I. (2000) Sport, health and drugs: a critical sociological perspective. Spon Press, London
- Donohoe, T, Johnson, N. (1986) Foul play: drug abuse in sports. Basil Blackwell, New York
- Kuhn, C, Scott, S, Wilke, W. (1998) The straight facts about the most used and abused drugs from alcohol to ecstasy. Norton, New York
- Sherlock, K, Conner, M. (1999) Patterns of ecstasy use amongst clubgoers on the UK 'dance scene. Int J Drug Policy 10: pp. 117-29
- Møldrup C. Den medicinerede normalitet. [Medical normality.] Gyldendal: Copenhagen 1999 [in Danish].
- Møldrup, C. —Fremtidens medicinsk optimeret krop. In: Balling, G eds. (2002) Homo Sapiens 2.0. GAD, Copenhagen, pp. 105-21
- Møldrup, C, Morgall, JM. (2001) Risk Society-reconsidered in a drug context. Health, Risk Society 3: pp. 59-74
- Knudsen, P, Hansen, EH, Traulsen, JM. (2002) Perceptions of younger woman using SSRI antidepressants-a reclassification of stigma. Int J Pharm Pract 10: pp. 243-52
- Slomka, J. (1992) Playing with Propranolol 22: pp. 13-7
- Van Zanten, MA, De Smidt, JH, Kok-Van-Esterik, JAE, Broekmans, AW. (2001) Lifestyle drugs do not exists. A matter of use 136: pp. 1274-76
- Young, SN. (2003) Lifestyle drugs, mood, behaviour and cognition. J Psych Neurosci 28: pp. 87-9
- Gilbert, D. (1999) Lifestyle drugs; who will pay?. Scrip report. PJB Publications, London
- Walley, T. (2002) Lifestyle medicines and the elderly. Drugs Aging 19: pp. 163-8
- Concise Oxford Dictionary. 10th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
- Klein, R, Sturm, H. (2002) Viagra: a success story for rationing?. Health Affaires 21: pp. 177-87
- Lifestyle drugs: potion for growth. Internet Communication, 2003. http://www.Equitymaster.com (10 Aug. 2003).
- Lifestyle Drugs Outlook to 2007: challenges and opportunities in a high-profile growth market New Strategic Management Report. Reuters, London
- Overman S. Warning: Viagra may cause headaches for health insurers. HR Magazine 1998; Sep: 104–9.
- Sevon M, Murany D. Quality of life drugs: framing the issue. Internet Communication 2001. http://www.amcp.org/data/ jmcp/vol15/num3/spotlight.html (16 June 2004).
- Laurance J. Should self-esteem be available at NHS? Independent 2001; 9.
- Go on, it's good for you. Editorial, The Economist, 6 Aug. 1998; 3.
- Frankel, S, Ebrahim, S, Davey Smith, G. (2000) The limits to demand for health care. BMJ 321: pp. 40-5
- Gilbert, D, Walley, T (2000) New B. Lifestyle medicines. BMJ 321: pp. 1341-4
- Wick, JY. (2002) Enhancing life or eradicating ugliness? Lifestyle drugs. J Manage Care Pharm 8: pp. 15-20
- Patel H. Lifestyle drugs. Caremark Clinical update 2000 (July).
- Bogdanovic S, Langlands B. Lifestyle drugs patient-initiated prescribing. Consultant Report 2003. Southend-on-Sea: Nicholas Hall & Company.
- Kole PL, Bhusari S, Thakurdesai PA. Lifestyle drugs: new avenues. Internet Communication 2003.
- Atkinson, T. (2002) Lifestyle drug market booming. Nat Med 8: pp. 909
- Gebhart, F. (1999) Patient demand for lifestyle drugs putting R.Ph.s in a bind. Drug Topic 143: pp. 61
- Editorial. Nat Biotechnol 21: pp. 1
- The use of the terms ‘lifestyle medicines’ or ‘lifestyle drugs’
Pharmacy World and Science
Volume 26, Issue 4 , pp 193-196
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Lifestyle medicines
- Industry Sectors
- Claus Møldrup (1) (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Social Pharmacy, The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark