Cyclodextrins in Nasal Delivery of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins: In Vivo and in Vitro Studies
- Cite this article as:
- Yang, T., Hussain, A., Paulson, J. et al. Pharm Res (2004) 21: 1127. doi:10.1023/B:PHAM.0000032998.84488.7a
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Purpose. To test the hypothesis that cyclodextrins reversibly enhance nasal absorption of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) and to investigate the mechanisms by which cyclodextrins enhance LMWH absorption via the nose.
Methods. Absorption of LMWHs was studied by measuring plasma anti-factor Xa activity after nasal administration of various LMWH formulations to anesthetized rats. In vivo reversibility studies were performed to investigate if the effects of cyclodextrins are reversible and diminish with time. The absorption-enhancing mechanisms of cyclodextrins were investigated in cell culture model. The transport of enoxaparin and mannitol, changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 were investigated.
Results. Formulations containing 5% dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD) produced the highest increase in the bioavailability of LMWH preparations tested. In vivo reversibility studies with 5% DMβCD showed that the effect of the absorption enhancer at the site of administration diminished with time. Transport studies using 16HBE14o− cells demonstrated that the increase in the permeability of enoxaparin and mannitol, reduction in TEER, and the changes in the tight junction protein ZO-1 distribution produced by 5% DMβCD were much greater than those produced by β-cyclodextrin (βCD) or hydroxyl-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD).
Conclusions. Of the cyclodextrins tested, DMβCD was the most efficacious in enhancing absorption of LMWHs both in vivo and in vitro. The study also suggests that cyclodextrins enhance nasal drug absorption by opening of cell-cell tight junctions.