, Volume 263, Issue 1, pp 115-129

Role of troponin T in disease

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Abstract

Several striated muscle myopathies have been directly linked to mutations in contractile and associated proteins. Troponin T (TnT) is one of the three subunits that form troponin (Tn) which together with tropomyosin is responsible for the regulation of striated muscle contraction. All three subunits of cardiac Tn as well as tropomyosin have been associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, TnT accounts for most of the mutations that cause HCM in these regulatory proteins. To date 30 mutations have been identified in the cardiac TnT (CTnT) gene that results in familial HCM (FHC). The CTnT gene has also been associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). CTnT deficiency is lethal due to impaired cardiac development. A recessive nonsense mutation in the gene encoding slow skeletal TnT has been associated with an unusual, severe form of nemaline myopathy among the Old Order Amish. How each mutation leads to the diverse clinical symptoms associated with FHC, DCM or nemaline myopathy is unclear. However, the use of animal model systems, in particular transgenic mice, has significantly increased our knowledge of normal and myopathic muscle physiology. In this review, we focus on the role of TnT in muscle physiology and disease. (Mol Cell Biochem 263: 115–129, 2004)