Arnett, J. (1992). Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective. Dev. Rev. 12: 339-373.
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. Am. Psychol. 55: 469-480.
Basen-Engquuist, K., Masse, L., Coyle, K., Parcel, G. S., Banspach, S., Kirby, D., and Nordora, J. (1996). Validity of scales measuring the psychosocial determinants of HIV/STD-related risk behavior in adolescents. Unpublished manuscript.
Brehm, S. S. (1992). Intimate Relationships. (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Brooks-Gunn, J., and Furstenberg, F., Jr. (1989) Adolescent sexual behavior. Am. Psychol. 44: 249-257.
Buhrmester, D. (1996). Need fulfillment, interpersonal competence, and the developmental contexts of early adolescent friendship. In Bukowski, W. M., Newcomb, A. F., and Hartup, W. W. (eds.), The Company They Keep: Friendships in Childhood and Adolescence. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 158-185.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000). National Center for STD, HIV, and TB Prevention. Health, United States.
Christensen, A., and Heavy, C. L. (1990). Gender and social structure in the demand/withdraw pattern of marital conflict. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 59: 73-81.
DiIorio, C., Dudley, W. N., and Soet, J. (1998). Predictors of HIV risk among college students. A CHAID analysis. J. Appl. Biobehav. Res. 3: 119-134.
DiIorio, C., Kelley, M., and Hockenberry-Eaton, M. (1999). Communication about sexual issues: Mothers, fathers, and friends. J. Adolesc. Health 24: 181-189.
Downie, J., and Coates, R. (1999). The impact of gender on parent–child sexuality communication: Has anything changed? Sex. Martial Ther. 14: 109-121.
East, P. L. (1996). The younger sisters of childbearing adolescents: Their attitudes, expectations, and behaviors. Child Dev. 67: 267-282.
Feldman, S. S., and Rosenthal, D. A. (2000). The effect of communication characteristics on family members' perceptions of parents as sex educators. J. Res. Adolesc. 10: 119-150.
Fisher, T. D. (1987). Family communication and the sexual behavior and attitudes of college students. J. Youth Adolesc. 16: 481-495.
Fox, G. L., and Inazu, J. K. (1980). Patterns and outcomes of mother–daughter communication about sexuality. J. Soc. Issues 36: 7-27.
Gottman, J. M. (1979). Marital Interaction. Academic Press, New York.
Gottman, J. M., Coan, J., Carrere, S., and Swanson, C. (1998). Predicting marital happiness and stability from newlywed interactions. J. Marriage Fam. 60: 5-22.
Hartup, W. W. (1989). Social relationships and their developmental significance. Am. Psychol. 44: 120-126.
Hudson, W. W., Murphy, G. J., and Nurius, P. S. (1983). A short-form scale to measure liberal vs. conservative orientations toward human sexual expression. J. Sex Res. 19: 258-272.
Jaccard, J., Dittus, P. J., and Gordon, V. V. (1996). Maternal correlates of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior. Fam. Plann. Perspect. 28: 159-185.
Jaccard, J., Dittus, P. J., and Gordon, V. V. (1998). Parent–adolescent congruency in reports of adolescent sexual behavior and in communications about sexual behavior. Child Dev. 69: 247-261.
Jemmott, L. S., and Jemmott, J. B. (1992). Increasing condom-use intentions among sexually active Black adolescent women. Nurs. Res. 41: 273-279.
Jessor, R., and Jessor, S. (1977). Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth. Academic Press, New York.
Kallen, D. J., Stephenson, J. J., and Doughty, A. (1983). The need to know: Recalled adolescent sources of sexual and contraceptive information and sexual behavior. J. Sex Res. 19: 137-159.
Kotva, H. J., and Schneider, H. G. (1990). Those “talks”—General and sexual communication between mothers and daughters. J. Soc. Behav. Pers. 5: 603-613.
Kuttler, A. F., La Greca, A. M., and Prinstein, M. J. (1999). Friendship qualities and social-emotional functioning of adolescents with close, cross-sex friendships. J. Res. Adolesc. 9: 339-366.
Lefkowitz, E. S. (2002). Beyond the yes–no question: Measuring parent–child communication about sexual topics. In Feldman, S. S., and Rosenthal, D. A. (eds.), New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 97, Talking Sexuality: Parent–Adolescent Communication. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 43-56.
Lefkowitz, E. S., Boone, T. L., Au, T. K., and Sigman, M. (2003). No sex or safe sex? Mothers' and adolescents' discussions about abstinence and safer sex. Health Educ. Res. 18: 341-351.
Lefkowitz, E. S., Boone, T. L., Sigman, M., and Au, T. K. (2002). He said, she said: Gender differences in self-reported and observed conversations about sexuality. J. Res. Adolesc. 12: 217-242.
Lefkowitz, E. S., Romo., L., Corona, R., Au, T. K., and Sigman, M. (2000). How Latino-American and European-American adolescents discuss conflicts, sexuality, and AIDS with their mothers. Dev. Psychol. 36: 315-325.
Lehr, S. T., DiIorio, C., Dudley, W. N., and Lipana, J. A. (2000). The relationship between parent–adolescent communication and safer sex behaviors in college students. J. Fam. Nurs. 6: 180-196.
McLaughlin, C. S., Chen, C., Greenberger, E., and Biermeier, C. (1997). Family, peer, and individual correlates of sexual experience among Caucasian and Asian American late adolescents. J. Res. Adolesc. 7: 33-53.
Miller, B. C., Norton, M. C., Fan, X., and Christopherson, C. R. (1998). Pubertal development, parental communication, and sexual values in relation to adolescent sexual behaviors. J. Early Adolesc. 18: 27-52.
Miller, K. S., Levin, M. L., Whitaker, D. J., and Xu, X. (1998). Patterns of condom use among adolescents: The impact of mother–adolescent communication. Am. J. Public Health 88: 1542-1544.
Monsour, M. (1992). Meanings of intimacy in cross-and same-sex friendships. J. Soc. Pers. Relat. 9: 277-295.
Muehlenhard, C. L., and Quackenbush, D. M. (1996). The social meaning of women's condom use: The sexual double standard and women's beliefs about the meaning ascribed to condom use. Unpublished manuscript.
Newcomer, S., and Udry, R. J. (1985). Parent–child communication and adolescent sexual behavior. Fam. Plann. Perspect. 17: 169-174.
Osgood, D. W., and Lee, H. (1993). Leisure activities, age, and adult roles across the life span. Soc. Leis. 16: 181-208.
O'Sullivan, L. F., Jaramillo, B. S. M., Moreau, D., and Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L. (1999). Mother–daughter communication about sexuality in a clinical sample of Hispanic adolescent girls. Hispanic J. Behav. Sci. 21: 447-469.
Papini, D. R., Farmer, F. L., Clark, S., and Snell, W. E. (1988). An evaluation of adolescent patterns of sexual self-disclosure to parents and friends. J. Adolesc. Res. 3: 387-401.
Pasch, L. A., Bradbury, T. N., and Davila, J. (1997). Gender, negative affectivity, and observed social support behavior in marital interaction. Pers. Relat. 4: 361-378.
Perkins, D. F., Luster, T., Villarruel, F. A., and Small, S. (1998). An ecological, risk-factor examination of adolescents' sexual activity in three ethnic groups. J. Marriage Fam. 60: 660-673.
Pistella, C. L. Y., and Bonati, F. A. (1998). Communication about sexual behavior among adolescent women, their family, and peers. Fam. Soc. J. Contemp. Hum. Serv. 79: 206-211.
Pleck, J. H., Sonenstein, F. L., and Ku, L. C. (1993). Masculinity ideology: Its impact on adolescent males' heterosexual relationships. J. Soc. Issues 49: 11-29.
Raffaelli, M., Bogenschneider, K., and Flood, M. F. (1998). Parent-teen communication about sexual topics. J. Fam. Issues 19: 315-333.
Rickman, R. L., Lodico, M., DiClemente, R. J., Morris, R., Baker, C., and Huscroft, S. (1994). Sexual communication is associated with condom use by sexually active incarcerated adolescents. J. Adolesc. Health 15: 383-388.
Rosenthal, D. A., and Feldman, S. S. (1999). The importance of importance: The differentiated nature of parent–adolescent communication about sexuality. J. Adolesc. 22: 835-852.
Rozema, H. J. (1986). Defensive communication climate as a barrier to sex education in the home. Fam. Relat. 35: 531-537.
Snell, W. E., Jr., and Finney, P. (1996). The Multidimensional AIDS Anxiety Questionnaire. Unpublished Manuscript.
Sutherland, E. S. (1947). Principles of Criminology (4th edn.), Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
Treboux, D., and Busch-Rossnagel, N. A. (1990). Social network influences on adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. J. Adolesc. Res. 5: 175-189.
Treboux, D., and Busch-Rossnagel, N. A. (1995). Age differences in parent and peer influences on female sexual behavior. J. Res. Adolesc. 5: 469-487.
Troth, A., and Peterson, C. C. (2000). Factors predicting safe-sex talk and condom use in early sexual relationships. Health Commun. 12: 195-218.
Warren, C., and Neer, M. (1986). Family sex communication orientation. J. Appl. Commun. Res. 14: 86-107.
White, C. P., Wright, D. W., and Barnes, H. L. (1995). Correlates of parent–child communication about specific sexual topics: A study of rural parents with school-aged children. Pers. Relat. 2: 327-543.
William, T. Grant Foundation Commission on Work, Family, and Citizenship (1988). The Forgotten Half: Non-College Youth in America. William T. Grant Foundation, New York.
Yep, G. A. (1993). Health beliefs and HIV prevention: Do they predict monogamy and condom use? J. Soc. Behav. Pers. 8: 507-520.