Andrews, J. A., Tildesley, E., Hops, H., & Li, F. (2002). The influence of peers on young adult substance use. Health Psychology, 21, 349-357.
Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1988). The effects of school-based substance abuse education: A meta-analysis. Journal of Drug Education, 18, 243-265.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1181.
Bell, R. M., Ellickson, P. L., & Harrison, E. R. (1993). Do drug prevention effects persist into high school? How Project ALERT did with ninth graders. Preventive Medicine, 22, 463-483.
Botvin, G. J. (2000). Preventing drug abuse in schools: Social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiological factors. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 887-897.
Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Botvin, E. M., Filazzola, A. D., & Millman, R. B. (1984). Prevention of alcohol misuse through the development of personal and social competence: A pilot study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 550-552.
Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Botvin, E. M., & Diaz, T. (1995). Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a White middle-class population. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1106-1112.
Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Tortu, S., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive–behavioral approach: Results of a three-year study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 437-446.
Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Filazzola, A., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). A cognitive–behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention: A one-year follow-up. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 47-63.
Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Renick, N., Filazzola, A. D., & Botvin, E. M. (1984). A cognitive–behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Addictive Behaviors, 9, 137-147.
Botvin, G. J., Batson, H., Witts-Vitale, S., Bess, V., Baker, E., & Dusenbury, L. (1989). A psychosocial approach to smoking prevention for urban black youth. Public Health Reports, 104, 573-582.
Botvin, G. J., Dusenbury, L., Baker, E., James-Ortiz, S., Botvin, E. M., & Kerner, J. (1992). Smoking prevention among urban minority youth: Assessing effects on outcome and mediating variables. Health Psychology, 11, 290-299.
Botvin, G. J., Epstein, J. A., Baker, E., Diaz, T., & Ifill-Williams, M. (1997). School-based drug abuse prevention with innercity minority youth. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 6, 5-20.
Botvin, G. J., & Eng, A. (1980). A comprehensive school-based smoking prevention program. Journal of School Health, 50, 209-213.
Botvin, G. J., & Eng, A. (1982). The efficacy of a multicomponent approach to the prevention of cigarette smoking. Preventive Medicine, 11, 199-211.
Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., Diaz, T., & Ifill-Williams, M. (2001a). Drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: One-year follow-up of a school-based preventive intervention. Prevention Science, 2, 1-13.
Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., Diaz, T., & Ifill-Williams, M. (2001b). Preventing binge drinking during early adolescence: One-and two-year follow-up of a school-based preventive intervention. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 360-365.
Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., Diaz, T., Miller, N., & Ifill-Williams, M. (1999). Smoking initiation and escalation in early adolescent girls: One-year follow-up of a school-based prevention intervention for minority youth. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 54, 139-143.
Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., Diaz, T., Scheier, L. M., Williams, C., & Epstein, J. A. (2000). Preventing illicit drug use in adolescents: Long-term follow-up data from a randomized control trial of a school population. Addictive Behaviors, 5, 769-774.
Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., Nichols, T. R., & Doyle, M. M. (2002). Preventing aggression and delinquency through a school-based drug abuse prevention approach. Paper presented at the 10th Annual Conference of the Society for Prevention Research, Seattle, WA.
Botvin, G. J., Renick, N. L., & Baker E. (1983). The effects of scheduling format and booster sessions on a broad-spectrum psychosocial smoking prevention program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6, 359-379.
Botvin, G. J., Schinke, S. P., Epstein, J. A., & Diaz, T. (1994). The effectiveness of culturally-focused & generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority youth. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 8, 116-127.
Botvin, G. J., Schinke, S. P., Epstein, J. A., Diaz, T., & Botvin, E. M. (1995). Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: Two-year follow-up results. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 9, 183-194.
Botvin, G. J., Schinke, S., & Orlandi, M. A. (1995). Drug abuse prevention with multiethnic youth. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bruvold, W. H., & Rundall, T. G. (1988). A meta-analysis and theoretical review of school based tobacco and alcohol intervention programs. Psychology and Health, 2, 53-78.
Cicchetti, D., & Luthar, S. S. (1999). Developmental approaches to substance use and abuse. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 655-656.
Dishion, T. J., Owen, L. D. (2002). A longitudinal analysis of friendships and substance use: Bidirectional influence from adolescence to adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 38, 480-491.
Donaldson, S. I., Graham, J. W., & Hansen, W. B. (1994). Testing the generalizability of intervening mechanism theories: Understanding the effects of adolescent drug use prevention interventions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17, 195-216.
Donaldson, S. I., Sussman, S., MacKinnon, D. P., Severson, H. H., Glynn, T., & Murray, D. M., et al. (1996). Drug abuse prevention programming: Do we know what content works? American Behavioral Scientist, 39, 868-883.
Ellickson, P. L., Tucker, J. S., & Klein, D. J. (2001). High risk behaviors associated with early smoking: Results from a 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 465-473.
Epstein, J. A., Griffin, K. W., & Botvin, G. J. (2000a). A model of smoking among inner-city adolescents: The role of personal competence and perceived benefits of smoking. Preventive Medicine, 31, 107-114.
Epstein, J. A., Griffin, K. W., & Botvin, G. J. (2000b). Competence skills help deter smoking among inner-city adolescents. Tobacco Control, 9, 33-39.
Epstein, J. A., Griffin, K. W., & Botvin, G. J. (2000c). Role of general and specific competence skills in protecting inner-city adolescents from alcohol use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 379-386.
Epstein, J. A., Griffin, K. W., & Botvin, G. J. (2002). Positive impact of competence skills and psychological wellness in protecting inner-city adolescents from alcohol use. Prevention Science, 3, 95-104.
Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., Noell, G. H., Cohen, S., & Rosenbaum, S. (1993). Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies. School Psychology Review, 22, 254-272.
Griffin, K. W., Botvin, G. J., Doyle, M. M., Diaz, T., & Epstein, J. A. (1999). Asix-year follow-up study of determinants of heavy cigarette smoking among high school seniors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 271-284.
Griffin, K. W., Botvin, G. J., Nichols, T. R., & Doyle, M. M. (2003). Effectiveness of a universal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Preventive Medicine, 36, 1-7.
Griffin, K. W., Botvin, G. J., Scheier, L. M., Diaz, T., & Miller, N. L. (2000). Parenting practices as predictors of substance use, delinquency, and aggression in urban minority youth: Moderating effects of family structure and gender. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14, 174-184.
Griffin, K. W., Botvin, G. J., Scheier, L. M., Epstein, J. A., & Diaz, T. (2002). Personal competence skills, distress, and well-being as determinants of substance use in a predominantly minority urban adolescent sample. Prevention Science, 3, 23-33.
Griffin, K. W., Epstein, J. A., Botvin, G. J., & Spoth, R. L. (2001). Social competence and substance use among rural youth: Mediating role of social benefit expectancies of use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 485-498.
Griffin, K. W., Scheier, L. M., Botvin, G. J., & Diaz, T. (2001). The protective role of personal competence skills in adolescent substance use: Psychological well-being as a mediating factor. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 194-203.
Hallfors, D., & Godette, D. (2002). Will the ‘Principles of Effectiveness’ improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research, 17, 461-470.
Hansen, W. B., & McNeal, R. B. (1997). How D.A.R.E. works: An examination of program effects on mediating variables. Health Education and Behavior, 24, 165-176.
Hartel, C. R., & Glantz, M. D. (1997). Drug abuse: Origins and interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64-105.
Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York: Academic Press.
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2000). National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975–1999. Volume I Secondary School Students. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services.
Judd, C. G., & Kenny, D. A. (1981). Process analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment evaluations. Evaluation Review, 5, 602-619.
Kandel, D. (2002). Examining the gateway hypothesis: Stages and pathways of drug involvement. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kandel, D. B., Yamaguchi, K., & Chen, K. (1992). Stages of progression in drug involvement from adolescence to adulthood: Further evidence for the Gateway Theory. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 447-457.
Kann, L., Kinchen, S. A., Williams, B. I., Ross, J. G., Lowry, R., Grunbaum, J., et al. (2000). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance–United States, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 49 (No. SS-5), 1-95.
Khantzian, E. J. (1997). The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: A reconsideration and recent applications. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 4, 231-244.
Koop, C. E., & Lundberg, G. D. (1992). Violence in America: A public health emergency. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 3076-3077.
Kopstein, A. N., Crum, R. M., Celentano, D. D., & Martin, S. S. (2001). Sensation seeking needs among 8th and 11th graders: Characteristics associated with cigarette and marijuana use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 62, 195-203.
Levy, R., & Carella, L. (2001). What makes a school-based drug abuse prevention program effective? The importance of skills-based provider training. Paper presented at annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Atlanta.
MacKinnon, D. P., Johnson, C. A., Pentz, M. A., Dwyer, J. H., Hansen, W. B., Flay, B. R., et al. (1991). Mediating mechanisms in a school-based drug prevention program: First year effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project. Health Psychology, 10, 164-172.
McCool, J. P., Cameron, L. D., & Petrie, K. J. (2001). Adolescent perceptions of smoking imagery in film. Social Science and Medicine, 52, 1577-1587.
Moskowitz, J. M. (1989). The primary prevention of alcohol problems: A critical review of the research literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 54-88.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1999). Principles of drug addiction treatment: A research based guide (NIH Publication No. 99-4180). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1988). Consequences of adolescent drug use: Impact on the lives of young adults. New York: Sage.
Office of National Drug Control Policy. (1997). The National Drug Control Strategy, 1997. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President. (Document NCJ163915).
Paglia, A., & Room, R. (1999). Preventing substance use problems among youth: A literature review and recommendations. Journal of Primary Prevention, 20, 3-50.
Petraitis, J., Flay, B. R., & Miller, T. Q. (1995). Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: Organizing pieces in the puzzle. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 67-86.
Piko, B. (2001) Smoking in adolescence: Do attitudes matter? Addictive Behaviors, 26, 201-217.
Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New York: The Free Press.
Russell, J. A, & Carroll, J. M. (1999). On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 3-30.
Saal, D., Dong, Y., Bonci, A., & Malenka, R. C. (2003). Drugs of abuse and stress trigger a common synaptic adaptation in dopamine neurons. Neuron, 37, 577-582.
Scheier, L. M. (2001). Etiologic studies of adolescent drug use: A compendium of data resources and their implications for prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 22, 125-168.
Scheier, L. M., Botvin, G. J., & Griffin, K. W. (2001). Preventive intervention effects on developmental progression in drug use: Structural equation modeling analyses using longitudinal data. Prevention Science, 2, 89-100.
Shoal, G. D., & Giancola, P. R. (2003). Negative affectivity and drug use in adolescent boys: Moderating and mediating mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 221-233.
Simons-Morton, B., Haynie, D. L., Crump, A. D., Saylor, K. E., Eitel, P., & Yu, K. (1999). Expectancies and other psychosocial factors associated with alcohol use among early adolescent boys and girls. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 229-238.
Swadi, H. (1999). Individual risk factors for adolescent substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 55, 209-224.
Tobler, N. (1986). Meta-analysis of 143 adolescent drug prevention programs: Quantitative outcome results of program participants compared to a control or comparison group. Journal of Drug Issues, 16, 537-567.
Tobler, N. (1992). Drug prevention programs can work: Research findings. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 11, 1-28.
Tobler, N. S., & Stratton, H. H. (1997). Effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research. Journal of Primary Prevention, 18, 71-128.
Wills, T. A., & Stoolmiller, M. (2002). The role of self-control in early escalation of substance use: A time-varying analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 986-997.
Windle, M. (1996). Effect of parental drinking on adolescents. Alcohol Health and Research World, 20, 181-184.