Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard: Sediment Chronology
- P.G. Appleby
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Sediment cores collected from eight lakes along the western coast of Svalbard as part of a project investigating atmospheric pollution and environmental change in Arctic regions were dated radiometrically using natural (210Pb) and artificial (137Cs and 241Am) fallout radionuclides. At four sites the sedimentation rates were relatively uniform, and in consequence the 210Pb dates were relatively unambiguous. At the remaining sites there were irregularities in the 210Pb activity versus depth profiles, indicating significant variations in the net sediment accumulation rate during the past 120 years. At these sites, there were significant differences between 210Pb dates calculated using the two standard simple dating models, constant rate of supply (CRS) and constant initial concentration (CIC). In most cases, stratigraphic dates based on the 137Cs and 241Am records supported use of the CRS model, though at one site (Ossian Sarsfjellet) the CIC model appeared more appropriate. The irregularities in the 210Pb records were mainly caused by episodes of accelerated sedimentation due, for example, to inwash or slump events, though at some sites there appears to have been a systematic increase in sediment accumulation rates in recent decades. Sediment accumulation rates were generally lower at the northern sites, and higher at the more southerly locations. Mean sediment accumulation rates varied by an order of magnitude, ranging from 0.002 to 0.050 g cm−2 y−1 (0.02–0.10 cm y−1). 210Pb fluxes measured from the core inventories were mostly in the range 34–80 Bq m−2 y−1 typical of Arctic sites. Much higher values, recorded at two sites (Birgervatnet and Daltjørna), may be due to significant inputs from the catchments during spring thaw.
- Appleby P.G. 1998. Dating recent sediments by 210Pb: problems and solutions. Proceedings of the 2nd NKS/EKO-1 Seminar, Helsinki, 2–4 April 1997. STUK, Helsinki, pp. 7–24.
- Appleby P.G. and Oldfield F. 1978. The calculation of 210Pb dates assuming a constant rate of supply of unsupported 210Pb to the sediment. Catena 5: 1–8.
- Appleby P.G. and Oldfield F. 1983. The assessment of 210Pb data from sites with varying sediment accumulation rates. Hydrobiologia 103: 29–35.
- Appleby P.G., Jones V.J. and Ellis-Evans J.C. 1995. Radiometric dating of lake sediments from Signy Island (maritime Antarctic): evidence of recent climatic change. J. Paleolim. 13: 179–191.
- Appleby P.G., Richardson N. and Nolan P.J. 1991. 241Am dating of lake sediments. Hydrobiologia 214: 35–42.
- Appleby P.G., Richardson N. and Nolan P.J. 1992. Self-absorption corrections for well-type germanium detectors. Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 71: 228–233.
- Appleby P.G., Nolan P.J., Gifford D.W., Godfrey M.J., Oldfield F., Anderson N.J. and Battarbee R.W. 1986. 210Pb dating by low background gamma counting. Hydrobiologia 141: 21–27.
- Birks H.J.B., Monteith D.T., Rose N.L., Jones V.J. and Peglar S.M. 2004. Recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on Svalbard as recorded in lake sediments — modern limnology, vegetation and pollen deposition. J. Paleolim. (this issue).
- Glew J.R. 1989. A new trigger mechanism for sediment samples. J. Paleolim. 2: 241–243.
- Pennington W., Cambray R.S. and Fisher E.M. 1973. Observations of lake sediments using fallout 137Cs as a tracer. Nature 242: 324–326.
- Robbins J.A. 1978. Geochemical and geophysical applications of radioactive lead. In: Nriagu J.O. (ed.), Biogeochemistry of Lead in the Environment. Elsevier Scientific, Amsterdam, pp. 285–393.
- Wathne B.M., Patrick S.T. and Cameron N. (eds) 1997. AL:PE Acidification of Mountain Lakes: Paleolimnology and Ecology. Part 2 — Remote Mountain Lakes as Indicators of Air Pollution and Climate. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, 525 pp.
- Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard: Sediment Chronology
Journal of Paleolimnology
Volume 31, Issue 4 , pp 433-443
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Lake sediments
- Sediment chronology
- Radiometric dating
- Industry Sectors
- P.G. Appleby (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Mathematical Sciences, Environmental Radioactivity Research Centre, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK