, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 15-26

Growth Factor Regulation of Cell Cycle Progression in Mammary Epithelial Cells

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Abstract

Growth factors are among the critical positive and negative regulators of cell proliferation for normal mammary/breast epithelial cells and for breast cancer cells. The mechanisms by which specific growth factors regulate the cell cycle in mammary/breast epithelial cells is beginning to be understood for several growth factor families, including the epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta families. A critical issue for understanding how growth factors regulate the cell cycle in vivo is how individual factors interact with other growth factors or hormones to enhance or inhibit specific molecular targets in the cell cycle machinery. This review addresses what is currently known about how growth factors regulate the cell cycle in mammary/breast epithelial cells both individually and in coordination with other growth regulators.