Pesticide Sales in Low-Income, Minority Neighborhoods
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The US EPA has phased-out residential use of two organophosphate pesticides commonly used to control cockroaches—retail sales of chlorpyrifos were scheduled to end on 12/31/01, and diazinon on 12/31/02. In light of recent findings highlighting the associations between pests, pesticides and health, we surveyed stores in low-income, minority neighborhoods in New York City to determine whether the phase-outs have been effective and to assess the availability of alternatives to spray pesticides. In summer 2002, when sales of chlorpyrifos were illegal and diazinon still legal, we surveyed 106 stores selling pesticides. Four percent sold products containing chlorpyrifos and 40 percent sold products containing diazinon. One year later, when sales of both pesticides were to have ended, we surveyed 109 stores selling pesticides in the same neighborhoods and found chlorpyrifos in only one store and diazinon in 18 percent of stores, including 80 percent of supermarkets surveyed. At least one form of lower toxicity pesticides, including gels, bait stations and boric acid was available in 69 percent of stores in 2002. However sprays were most widely available, found in 94 percent of stores in 2002 and less expensive than lower toxicity baits and gels. In a separate survey of storekeeper recommendations conducted in 2002, storekeepers recommended lower toxicity pesticides as the best way to control cockroaches 79% of the time. The EPA's phase-outs have nearly eliminated sales of chlorpyrifos, but the diazinon phase-out appears to be less effective.
- Rosenstreich DL, Eggleston P, Kattan M et al. The role of cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in causing morbidity among inner-city children with asthma. N Engl J Med 1997; 336:1356-63.
- Gold DR, Burge HA, Carey V, Milton DK, Platts-Mills T, Weiss ST. Predictors of repeated wheeze in the first year of life: the relative roles of cockroach, birth weight, acute lower respiratory illness, and maternal smoking. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999; 160:227-36.
- Landrigan PJ, Claudio L, Markowitz SB et al. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention. Environ Health Perspect 1999; 107:431-7.
- Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Castorina R. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects. Environ Health Perspect 1999; 107:409-19.
- Schettler T, Stein J, Reich F, Valenti M, Wallinga D. In Harm's Way: Toxic Threats to Child Development. Cambridge, MA: Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility, 2000.
- Perera FP, Rauh V, Tsai WY, et al. Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111:201-5.
- Davis DL, Ahmed AK. Exposures from indoor spraying of chlorpyrifos pose greater health risks to children than currently estimated. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106:299-301.
- Fenske RA, Black KG, Elkner KP, Lee CL, Methner MM, Soto R. Potential exposure and health risks of infants following indoor residential pesticide applications. Am J Public Health 1990; 80:689-93.
- Gurunathan S, Robson M, Freeman N et al. Accumulation of chlorpyrifos on residential surfaces and toys accessible to children. Environ Health Perspect 1998; 106(1):9-16.
- Green L, Fullilove MT, Evans D, Shepard P. “Hey, Mom, Thanks!”: Use of focus groups in the development of place-specific materials for a community environmental action campaign. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110:265-9.
- Evans D, Fullilove MT, Green L, Levison M. Awareness of environmental risks and protective actions among minority women in northern Manhattan. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110:271-5.
- U. S. EPA. Chlorpyrifos Revised Risk Assessment and Agreement with Registrants. Washington, DC: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000.
- U. S. EPA. Diazinon Revised Risk Assessment and Agreement with Registrants. Washington, DC: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001.
- Kinney PL, Northridge ME, Chew GL et al. On the front lines: an environmental asthma intervention in New York City. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:24-6.
- Whyatt RM, Barr DB, Camann DE et al. Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111:749-756.
- Pesticide Sales in Low-Income, Minority Neighborhoods
Journal of Community Health
Volume 29, Issue 3 , pp 231-244
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- United States Environmental Protection Agency
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health, 60 Haven Avenue B-1, New York, NY, 10032
- 2. Heart of Harlem Project, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY
- 3. South Bronx Clean Air Coalition, Bronx, NY
- 4. West Harlem Environmental Action Inc., New York, NY
- 5. Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, USA
- 6. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY
- 7. Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and Mailman School of Public Health, USA