Strontium (Sr) substituted calcium phosphate ceramics were fabricated using a powder precipitation method. The Sr ions were added up to 8 mol % to replace the Ca ions during the powder preparation. Composition analysis showed that the added Sr was not fully incorporated within the as-precipitated apatite structure, presumably being washed out during the powder preparation. After calcination, the Sr containing powders were crystallized into apatite and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), that is, biphasic calcium phosphates were formed. The amount of TCP increased with increasing the Sr addition. The lattice parameters of the calcined powders increased gradually with Sr substitution in both the a- and c-axis. However, the obtained values deviated slightly from the calculated ones at higher Sr additions (>4%) due to the partial substitution of Sr ions. The microstructure of the sintered bodies changed with the Sr addition due to the formation of TCP. The Vickers hardness increased slightly from 5.2 to 5.5 MPa with increasing Sr addition, which was driven by the HA+TCP biphasic formation. The osteoblast-like cells cultured on the Sr-substituted biphasic sample spread and grew actively. The proliferation rate of the cells was higher in the samples containing more Sr. The alkaline phosphate activity of the cells was expressed to a higher degree with increasing Sr addition. These observations confirmed the enhanced cell viability and differentiation of the Sr-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics.