Microstructural characterization of porous manganese thin films for electrochemical supercapacitor applications
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
An in-depth microstructural characterization was performed on manganese oxide materials that have been produced for electrochemical supercapacitor applications using a novel physical vapor deposition process. Manganese was e-beam evaporated and deposits as a combination of the cubic forms of Mn and MnO with a porous zigzag structure. The electrochemically oxidized sample that is used as the supercapacitor base material is tetragonal Mn3O4. An apparent active layer with increased sodium levels was imaged by STEM, lending some credence to the argument that the pseudocapacitance effect is based entirely on a surface layer of adsorbed sodium. Upon furnace annealing the zigzag structure near the free surface is destroyed and replaced with a columnar oxide layer of cubic MnO and tetragonal Mn3O4. This capping effect ultimately reduces the usable surface area and is thought to account for the reduction in capacitance seen on annealing.
- B. E. Conway, in “Electrochemical Supercapacitors” (Kluwer/Plenum Publishers, NewYork, 1999).
- R. Kotz and M. Carlen Electrochimica Acta 45 (2000) 2438.
- M. Toupin T. Brousse and D. Belanger Chem. Mater. 14 (2002) 3946.
- Y. U. Jeong and A. Manthiram J. Electrochem. Soc. 149(11) (2002) A1419.
- S. Pang M. A. Anderson and T. W. Chapman, ibid. 147(2) (2000) 444.
- S. Pang and M. A. Anderson J. Mater. Res. 15(10) (2000) 2096.
- C. Hu and T. Tsou Electrochimica Acta 47 (2002) 3523.
- H. Y. Lee S. W. Kim and H. Y. Lee Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 4(3) (2001) A19.
- J. N. Broughton and M. J. Brett, ibid. 5(12) (2002) A279.
- S.-F. chin S.-C. Pang and M. A. Anderson J. Electrochem. Soc. 149(4) (2002) A379.
- K. Robbie and M. J. Brett J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3) (1997) 1460.
- J. Jiang and A. Kucernak Electrochimica Acta 47(15) (2002) 2381.
- Microstructural characterization of porous manganese thin films for electrochemical supercapacitor applications
Journal of Materials Science
Volume 38, Issue 24 , pp 4817-4830
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G6, Canada
- 2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G6, Canada