Phylogeography of a facultatively migratory dragonfly, Libellulaquadrimaculata (Odonata: Anisoptera)
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- Artiss, T. Hydrobiologia (2004) 515: 225. doi:10.1023/B:HYDR.0000027332.57786.9d
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The biogeography of a widely distributed dragonfly (Libellula quadrimaculata) was examined via a phylogenetic analysis of 416 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI). Phylogenetic analyses under parsimony and minimum evolution produced trees with similar topologies, and revealed strong support for three clades corresponding to populations in Asia, Europe and North America. However, resolution was poor within clades, and genetic distances between populations within continents was quite low (1–2%). Several populations of this species are known to engage in periodic mass migrations, and it is possible that introgression from gene flow due to the mobility of this species has obscured phylogenetic patterns within continents. I was unable to test for phylogenetic patterns coincident with historical glacial refugia given the lack of phylogenetic patterns within continents. However, given that some sequence divergence was observed between populations within continents, it is possible that phylogenetic patterns exist, and subsequent studies should make use of larger data sets, and molecular data from faster evolving genes. Despite the propensity for periodic, short distance migrations in L. quadrimaculata, gene flow appears to be limited and does not influence the phylogenetic relationships of populations between continents.