ACC-SCN (1987). First Report on the World Nutrition Situation, United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination Subcommittee on Nutrition. Geneva, Switzerland.
Almagor, U. (1978). Pastoral Partners: Affinity and Bond Partnership Among the Dasanetch of Southwest Ethiopia, Manchester University Press, Manchester.
Bailey, R. C., Bentley, G. R., Ellison, P. T., Harrigan, A. M., Jenike, M. R., and Peacock, N. R. (1992). The ecology of birth seasonality among agriculturalists in central Africa. Journal of Biosocial Science 24: 393–412.
Baxter, P. T. W. (1954). The Social Organisation of the Boran of Northern Kenya, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Behnke, R. H., Jr. (1980). The Herders of Cyrenaica: Ecology, Economy and Kinship Among the Bedouin of Eastern Libya, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
Black, A. E., Henry, C. J. K., Prentice, A. M., and Shetty, P. S. (1996). Energy requirements of adults: An update on basal metabolic rates (BMRs) and physical activity levels (PALs). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50: S11-S23.
Blurton Jones, N. G. (1984). A selfish origin for human food sharing: Tolerated theft. Ethology and Sociobiology 4: 145–147.
Blurton Jones, N. G. (1987). Tolerated theft, suggestions about the ecology and evolution of sharing, hoarding and scrounging. Social Science and Information 26: 31–54.
Bonte, P., and Galaty, J. G. (1991). Introduction. In Galaty, J. G., and Bonte, P. (eds.), Herders, Warriors and Traders: Pastoralism in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 3–32.
Boonstra, E., Lindboek, M., Fidzani, B., and Bruusgaard, D. (2001). Cattle eradication and malnutrition in under five's: A natural experiment in Botswana. Public Health and Nutrition 4: 877–882.
Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1991a). Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania. National Geographic Research and Exploration 72: 166–187.
Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1991b). Women's strategies in polygynous marriage: Kipsigis, Datoga, and other east African cases. Human Nature 3: 45–70.
Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1992). Demography of pastoralists: Preliminary data on the Datoga of Tanzania. Human Ecology 20: 383–405.
Borgerhoff Mulder, M., and Sellen, D. W. (1994). Pastoralist decision-making: A behavioral ecological perspective. In Fratkin, E., Galvin, K., and Roth, E. (eds.), African Pastoralist Systems. An Integrated Approach, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, CO, pp. 205–230.
Brockington, D. (2001). Women's income and the livelihood strategies of dispossesed pastoralists near the Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania. Human Ecology 29: 307–338.
Butte, N. F. (1996). Energy requirements of infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50: S24-S36.
Casimir, M. J. (1991). Flocks and Food. A Biocultural Approach to the Study of Pastoral Foodways, Boehlau Verlag, Koeln, Germany.
Centers for Disease Control (1989). EPI-INFO, CDC, Atlanta, GA.
Coppolillo, P. B. (2000). The landscape ecology of pastoral herding: Spatial analysis of land use and livestock production in East Africa. Human Ecology 28: 527–560.
Curran, L. S., and Galvin, K. A. (1999). Subsistence, activity patterns and physical work capacity. In Little, M. A., and Leslie, P. W. (eds.), Turkana Herders of the Dry Savanna. Ecology and Biobehavioral Response of Nomads to an Uncertain Environment, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 144–163.
Curry, J. (1996). Gender and livestock in African production systems: An introduction. Human Ecology 24: 149–160.
Dahl, G. (1979). Suffering Grass: Subsistence and Society of the Waso Borana, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm.
Dahl, G., and Hjort, A. (1976). Having Herds: Pastoral Herd Growth and Household Economy, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm.
Davies, P. S. W., Livingstone, M. B. E., Paolisso, M., Sackett, R., Spurr, G. B., and Torun, B. (1996). Energy requirements and daily energy recommendations for children and adolescents 1 to 18 years old. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50: S37-S81.
de Boer, W. F., and Prins, H. H. T. (1989). Decisions of cattle herdsmen in Burkino-Faso. Human Ecology 17: 445–464.
de Garine, I., and Koppert, G. (1988). Coping with seasonal fluctuations in food supply among savanna populations: The Massa and Mussey of Chad and Cameroon. In de Garine, I., and Harrison, G. A. (eds.), Coping With Uncertainty in Food Supply, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 210–259.
de Garine, I., and Koppert, S. (1990). Social adaptation to season and uncertainty in food supply. In Harrison, G. A., and Waterlow, J. C. (eds.), Diet and Disease in Traditional and Developing Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 240–289.
Department of Health Education and Welfare (1977). NCHS Growth Curves of Children, Birth-18 years United States, Series 11, DHEW Publication No. (P.H.S.) 78–1650, Washington, DC.
Dewey, K. G. (1997). Energy and protein requirements during lactation [Review] (49 refs.). Annual Review of Nutrition 17: 19–36.
Dupont, J. L., Durnin, J. V. G. A., Ferro-Luzzi, A., Roberts, S. B., Schurch, B., and Shetty, P. S. (1996). Report of the working group on energy requirements of older individuals. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50: S192.
Durnin, J. V. G. A., Edholm, O. G., Miller, D. S., and Waterlow, J. C. (1973). How much food does man require? Nature 242: 418.
Dyson-Hudson, N. (1966). Karimajong Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Dyson-Hudson, N. (1972). The study of nomads. In Irons, W., and Dyson-Hudson, N. (eds.), Perspectives on Nomadism, E. J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 2–29.
Dyson-Hudson, N. (1980). Strategies of resource exploitation among East African savanna pastoralists. In Harris, D. (ed.), Human Ecology in Savanna Environments, Academic Press, London, pp. 171–184.
Elam, Y. (1973). The Social and Sexual Roles of Hima Women: A Study of Nomadic Cattle Breeders in Nyabushozi County, Ankole, Uganda, Manchester University Press, Manchester.
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1940). The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Ferro-Luzzi, A. (1990). Seasonal energy stress in marginally nourished rural women: Interpretation and integrated conclusions of a multicentre study in three developing countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44: 41–46.
Food and Agriculture Organization (1967). FAO Production Yearbook, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, Rome.
Food and Agriculture Organization (1987). The Fifth World Food Survey, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, Rome.
Fratkin, E. (1989). Household variation and gender inequality in Ariaal pastoral production: Results of a stratified time-allocation survey. American Anthropologist 91: 430–440.
Fratkin, E., Galvin, K., and Roth, E. (1994). African Pastoralist Systems: An Integrated Approach, Lynne Reinner, Boulder, CO.
Fratkin, E., and Roth, E. (1990). Drought and economic differentiation among Ariaal pastoralists of Kenya. Human Ecology 184: 385–402.
Fratkin, E. M., and McCabe, J. T. (1999). East African pastoralism at the crossroads: An introduction. Nomadic Peoples 3: 5–15.
Fratkin, E. M., Roth, E. A., and Nathan, M. A. (1999). When nomads settle: The effects of commoditization, nutritional change, and formal education on Ariaal and Rendille pastoralists. Current Anthropology 40: 729–735.
Frisancho, A. (1990). Anthropometric Standards for the Assessment of Growth and Nutritional Status, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Galaty, J., Aronson, D., and Salzman, P. (1981). The Future of Pastoral Peoples, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
Galaty, J., and Bonte, P. (1991). The current realities of African pastoralists. In Bonte, J. G. G. a. P. (ed.), Herders, Warriors and Traders, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 267–292.
Galvin, K. (1985). Food Procurement, Diet, Activities and Nutrition of Ngisonyoka Turkana Pastoralists in an Ecological and Social Context, State University of New York at Binghamton.
Galvin, K., Coppock, D., and Leslie, P. (1994). Diet, nutrition and the pastoral strategy. In Fratkin, E., Galvin, K., and Roth, E. (eds.), African Pastoralist Systems. An Integrated Approach, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, CO, pp. 113–132.
Galvin, K. A. (1992). Nutritional ecology of pastoralists in dry tropical Africa. American Journal of Human Biology 4: 209–221.
Gibson, R. (1990). Anthropometric reference data. In Principles of Nutritional Assessment, Oxford University Press, New York, chapter 12, pp. 209–246.
Goldschmidt, W. (1969). Kambuya's Cattle: The Legacy of an African Herdsman, University of California Press, Berkeley.
Goldschmidt, W. (1976). The Culture and Behavior of the Sebei, University of California Press, Berkeley.
Grandin, B. (1988). Wealth and pastoral dairy production: A case study from Masaailand. Human Ecology 16: 1–21.
Gulliver, P. (1955). The Family Herds: A Study of Two Pastoral Tribes in East Africa, the Jie and Turkana, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Gulliver, P. (1963). Social Control in an African Society. A Study of the Arusha: Agricultural Masai of Northern Tanganyika, Boston University Press, Boston, MA.
Herren, U. J. (1990). Socioeconomic stratification and small stock production in Mukogodo Division, Kenya. Research in Economic Anthropology 12: 111–148.
Homewood, K. (1992). Development and the ecology of Masaai pastoralist food and nutrition. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 29: 61–80.
Homewood, K., and Rodgers, W. (1991). Masaailand Ecology: Pastoralist Development and Wildlife Conservation in Ngorongoro, Tanzania, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
International Livestock Center for Africa (1981). Introduction to the East African Range Livestock Study, International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA)/Republic of Kenya, Nairobi.
Irons, W. (1979). Cultural and biological success. In Chagnon, N. A. N. A., and Irons, W. (eds.), Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, Duxbury Press, North Scituate, MA, pp. S257–272.
Jacobs, A. (1965). The Traditional Political Organisation of the Pastoral Masaai, Oxfrod University Press, Oxfrod.
James, W., McNeill, G., and Ralph, A. (1990). Metabolism and nutritional adaptation to altered intakes of energy substrates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51: 264–269.
James, W., and Shetty, P. (1982). Metabolic adaptation and energy requirements in developing countries. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 36C: 331–336.
Jelliffe, D. B., and Jelliffe, E. F. P. (1989). Community Nutritional Assessment With Special Reference to Less Technically Developed Countries, Oxford University Press, New York.
Jenike, M. R. (2001). Nutritional ecology: Diet, physical activity and body size. In Panter-Brick, C., Layxon, R., and Rowley-Conwy, P. (eds.), Hunter-Gatherers: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 205–237.
Kertzer, D. I. (1984). Anthropology and family history. Journal of Family History 9(3): 201–216.
Kjaerby, F., and Baynit, W. (1979). The Development of Agro-Pastoralism Among the Barabaig in Hanang District, BRALUP Research Papers, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Klima, G. (1964). Jural relations between the sexes among the Barabaig. Africa 34: 9–19.
Klima, G. (1965). The Barabaig East: African Catttle Herders, Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL.
Lane, C. (1996). Pastures Lost: Barabaig Economy, Resource Tenure, and the Alienation of Their Land in Tanzania, Initiatives Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya.
Leonard, W. R., Galloway, V. A., Ivakine, E., Osipova, L., and Kazakovtseva, M. (2002). Ecology, health and lifestyle change among the Evenki herders of Siberia. In Leonard, W. R., and Crawford, M. H. (eds.), Human Biology of Pastoral Populations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 206–235.
Lewis, I. (1962). Marriage and the Family in Northern Somaliland, East African Institute of Social Research, Kamplala, Uganda.
Little, M. (1998). Growth of African pastoralist children. In Ulijaszek, S., Johnston, F., and Preece, M. (eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 354–355.
Little, M. A. (2002). Human biology, health and ecology of nomadic Turkana pastoralists. In Leonard, W. R., and Crawford, M. H. (eds.), Human Biology of Pastoral Populations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 151–182.
Little, M. A., Galvin, K., and Leslie, P. W. (1988). Health and energy requirements of nomadic Turkana pastoralists. In de Garine, I., and Harrison, G. A. (eds.), Coping With Uncertainty in Food Supply, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 290–317.
Little, P. (1985). Social differentiation and pastoralist sedentarization in northern Kenya. Africa 55: 243–261.
Mace, R. (1993a). Nomadic pastoralists adopt subsistence strategies that maximise long-term household survival. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 33: 329–334.
Mace, R. (1993b). Transitions between cultivation and pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa. Current Anthropology 34: 363–382.
Mace, R., and Houston, A. (1989). Pastoralist strategies for survival in unpredictable environments: A model of herd composition that maximises household viability. Agricultural Systems 31: 185–204.
Martorell, R., Mendoza, F., and Castillo, R. (1989). Genetic and environmental determinants of growth in Mexican-Americans. Pediatrics 84: 864–871.
McCabe, J., Perkin, S., and Schofield, C. (1992). Can conservation and development be coupled among pastoral peoples? An examination of the Maasai of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. Human Organisation 51: 353–366.
McCabe, J., Schofield, E., and Pederson, G. (1989). Food security and nutritional status, Ngorongoro Conservation and Development Project, IUCN Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya.
Moe, P. (1994). Future directions for energy requirements and food energy values. Journal of Nutrition 124: 1738S-1742S.
Nathan, M., Fratkin, E., and Roth, E. (1996). Sedentism and child health among Rendille pastoralists of northern Kenya. Social Science and Medicine 43: 503–515.
National Research Council (1989). Energy, Recommended Dietary Allowances, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 24–38.
Nestel, P. (1985). Nutrition of Masaai Women and Children in Relation to Subsistence Food Production, University of London.
Nicolaisen, J. (1963). Ecology and Culture of the Pastoral Tuareg, National Museum of Copenhagen, Ethnographisk raekke, Copenhagen.
Panter-Brick, C. (1993). Seasonal organisation of work patterns. In Ulijaszek, S. J., and Strickland, S. S. (eds.), Seasonality and Human Ecology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 220–234.
Payne, P. (1985). Nutritional adaptation in man: Social adjustments and their nutritional implications. In Blaxter, K., and Waterlow, J. C. (eds.), Nutritional Adaptations in Man, John Libbey, London, pp. 71–87.
Pelto, G., Pelto, P., and Messer, E. (1989). Research Methods in Nutritional Anthropology, United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.
Pennington, R. L. (2002). Economic stratification and health among the Herero of Botswana. In Leonard, W. R., and Crawford, M. H. (eds.), Human Biology of Pastoral Populations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 183–205.
Rigby, P. (1969). Cattle and Kinship Among the Gogo, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Ruttan, L. M., and Mulder, M. B. (1999). Are east African pastoralists truly conservationists? Current Anthropology 40: 621–652.
Salzman, P. C. (1999). Is inequality universal? Current Anthropology 40: 31–62.
Schneider, H. (1953). The Pakot of Kenya With Special Reference to the Role of Livestock in Their Subsistence Economy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Schneider, H. (1979). Livestock and Equality in East Africa, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Sellen, D. W. (1995). The socioecology of young child growth among the Datoga pastoralists of northern Tanzania. In Graduate Group in Ecology and Program in International Nutrition, University of California at Davis, Davis, p. 390.
Sellen, D. W. (1996). Nutritional status of sub-Saharan African pastoralists: A review of the literature. Nomadic Peoples 39: 107–134.
Sellen, D. W. (1998). Infant and young child feeding practices among African pastoralists: The Datoga of Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science 30: 481–499.
Sellen, D. W. (1999a). Growth patterns among semi-nomadic pastoralists (Datoga) of Tanzania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 109: 187–209.
Sellen, D. W. (1999b). Polygyny and child growth in a traditional pastoral society: The case of the Datoga of Tanzania. Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Journal 10: 329–371.
Sellen, D. W. (2000a). Age, sex and anthropometric status of children in an African pastoral community. Annals of Human Biology 27: 1–21.
Sellen, D. W. (2000b). Seasonal ecology and nutritional status of women and children in a Tanzanian pastoral community. American Journal of Human Biology 12: 758–781.
Sellen, D. W. (2001). Weaning, complementary feeding and maternal decision making in a rural east African pastoral population (Datoga). Journal of Human Lactation 17: 233–244.
Sellen, D. W., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., and Sieff, D. F. (2000). Fertility, offspring quality and wealth in Datoga pastoralists: Testing evolutionary models of intersexual selection. In Cronk, L., Chagnon, N., and Irons, W. (eds.), Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, Aldine de Gruyter, Hawthorne, NY, pp. 87–110.
Shell-Duncan, B., and Obiero, W. O. (2000). Child nutrition in the transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled lifestyles: Individual, household, and community-level factors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 113: 183–200.
Sieff, D. (1995). The Effects of Resource Availability on the Subsistence Strategies of Datoga Pastoralists of North West Tanzania, Institute of Biological Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, 289 pp.
Sieff, D. F. (1997). Herding strategies of the Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania: Is household labor a limiting factor? Human Ecology 25: 519–544.
Sieff, D. F. (1999). The effects of wealth on livestock dynamics among the Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania. Agricultural Systems 59: 1–25.
Spencer, P. (1965). The Samburu: A Study of Gerontocracy in a Nomadic Tribe, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Spencer, P. (1973). Nomads in Alliance: Symbiosis and Growth Among the Rendille and Samburu of Kenya, Oxford University Press, London.
Sperling, L., and Galaty, J. G. (1990). Cattle, culture and economy: Dynamics in east African pastoralism. In Galaty, J. G., and Johnson, D. L. (eds.), The World of Pastoralism: Herding Systems in Comparative Perspective, Guilford Press, London, pp. 69–98.
Stenning, D. (1959). Savannah Nomads: A Study of the Wodaabe Pastoral Fulani of Western Bornu Province, Northern Region, Nigeria, Oxford University Press, London.
Swift, J. (1977). Sahelian pastoralists: Underdevelopment, desertification and famine. Annual Review of Anthropology 6: 457–478.
Tanaka, S. (1969). Natural environments of Mangola. Kyoto University African Studies 3: 1.
Tomikawa, M. (1970). The distribution and migrations of the Datoga tribe—The sociological distinction of the Datoga society in the Mangola area. Kyoto University African Studies 5: 1–46.
Tomikawa, M. (1972). Cattle brands of the Datoga tribe—Human relations in the the Datoga pastoral society in East Africa. Kyoto University African Studies 7: 1–35.
Tomikawa, M. (1978). Family and daily life: An ethnography of the Datoga pastoralists of Mangola. Senri Ethological Studies 1: 1–36.
Tomikawa, M. (1979). The migrations and inter-tribal relations of the pastoral Datoga. Senri Ethological Studies 5: 1–46.
Ulijaszek, S. (1992). Human energetics methods in biological anthropology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 35: 215–242.
Waterlow, J. (1986). Metabolic adaptation to low intakes of energy and protein. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 6: 495–526.
Waterlow, J. (1990). Nutritional adaptation in man: General introduction and concepts. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51: 259–263.
Western, D., and Finch, V. (1986). Cattle and pastoralism: Survival and production in arid lands. Human Ecology 14: 77–94.
Widdowson, E. (1985). Responses to deficits of dietary energy. In Blaxter, K., and Waterlow, J. C. (eds.), Nutritional Adaptations in Man, John Libbey, London, pp. 97–103.
World Health Organization. (1985). Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation, Technical Report Series 724, World Health Organization, Geneva.