The natural and laboratory heritabilities of a series of parameters related to wing size and shape were estimated in a population of Drosophila gouveai (repleta group) under field and laboratory conditions. A morphometric analysis was done using 17 wing parameters related to wing landmark positions obtained using the method of the best adjustment of an ellipse to the wing edge. Three parameters (θA, θC and θD) showed highly significant heritability in the wild (average 0.61), whereas only wing size (WSI) had significant heritability in the laboratory (0.71). The additive genetic variance of most parameters was greater in the wild than in the laboratory. These results showed that some parameters possessed a substantial genetic additive component in their phenotypic variance, and that morphometric parameters of D. gouveai wings are appropriate quantitative markers for assessing morphological differentiation among populations.