, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 103-116

Agricultural activities and the global carbon cycle

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The observed and projected increase in emission of greenhouse gases, with attendant effects on global warming and sea level rise, have raised interests in identifying mitigation options. Terrestrial C sequestration involves capture of atmospheric C through photosynthesis and storage in biota, soil and wetlands. Land use, vegetation and soil management have a strong impact on the biotic processes of C sequestration. Losses of C from the terrestrial ecosystems are exacerbated by deforestation, biomass burning, plowing, resource-based and subsistence agriculture, and practices that mine soil fertility and deplete the soil organic C (SOC) pool. Biomass burning may also produce charcoal, which is an inert carbon with long residence time. Practices that enhance C sequestration include afforestation and reforestation, conservation tillage and mulch farming, integrated nutrient management and adopting systems with high biodiversity. Net C sequestration within an ecosystem can be assessed by taking into account the hidden C costs of fertilizers, pesticides, tillage, irrigation and other input. Restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems has a vast potential of C sequestration. The Kyoto Protocol provides for C sequestration in terrestrial sinks and C trading through Clean Development Mechanisms. Terrestrial C sequestration, besides being a win–win strategy, offers a window of opportunity for the first few decades of the 21st century. It is a natural process of reducing the rates of gaseous emissions while alternatives to fossil fuel take effect.