, Volume 110, Issue 4, pp 361-370

Trichoderma Biocontrol of Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea and Survival in Strawberry

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Abstract

Trichoderma isolates are known for their ability to control plant pathogens. It has been shown that various isolates of Trichoderma, including T. harzianum isolate T-39 from the commercial biological control product TRICHODEX, were effective in controlling anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) and grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) in strawberry, under controlled and greenhouse conditions. Three selected Trichoderma strains, namely T-39, T-161 and T-166, were evaluated in large-scale experiments using different timing application and dosage rates for reduction of strawberry anthracnose and grey mould. All possible combinations of single, double or triple mixtures of Trichoderma strains, applied at 0.4% and 0.8% concentrations, and at 7 or 10 day intervals, resulted in reduction of anthracnose severity; the higher concentration (0.8%) was superior in control whether used with single isolates or as a result of combined application of two isolates, each at 0.4%. Only a few treatments resulted in significant control of grey mould. Isolates T-39 applied at 0.4% at 2 day intervals, T-166 at 0.4%, or T-161 combined with T-39 at 0.4% were as effective as the chemical fungicide fenhexamide. The survival dynamics of populations of the Trichoderma isolates (T-39, T-105, T-161 and T-166) applied separately was determined by dilution plating and isolates in the mixtures calculated according to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using repeat motif primers. The biocontrol isolates were identified to the respective species T. harzianum (T-39), T. hamatum (T-105), T. atroviride (T-161) and T. longibrachiatum (T-166), according to internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis.