, Volume 70, Issue 3, pp 235-245

Reproductive Ecology of Pterapogon kauderni, an Endemic Apogonid from Indonesia with Direct Development

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Abstract

Pterapogon kauderni does not have secondary sexual dimorphism, and has an equal sex ratio (50.8% males : 49.2% females). Females first mature at a length of about 34 mm. Data from both laboratory-bred and wild-collected eggs and embryos are not consistent with the presence of differential reproductive allocation in this species. Analysis from clutches brooded by wild-collected males shows a significant intra-clutch and among-clutch variation in egg size. Mean individual egg size (diameter, volume, or weight) is not correlated with the size (standard length, head length, or lower jaw length) of the males brooding those eggs. P. kauderni has a lunar reproductive cycle, with a major spawning peak during full moon and a smaller peak during the last quarter. Similarly, it has a major juvenile release (settlement) peak at full moon, with a minor peak at new moon. However, one population, which is located in a site with distinct environmental conditions and which was sampled a year earlier, shows a different reproductive pattern, last quarter being the phase where most of spawn and release events take place.