Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 177–190

After-School Youth Development Programs: A Developmental-Ecological Model of Current Research

  • Nathaniel R. Riggs
  • Mark T. Greenberg

DOI: 10.1023/B:CCFP.0000045126.83678.75

Cite this article as:
Riggs, N.R. & Greenberg, M.T. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev (2004) 7: 177. doi:10.1023/B:CCFP.0000045126.83678.75


Although there has been a rapid increase in funding and attention to after-school programs, there is little understanding of how after-school programs impact children's developmental trajectories. The heterogeneity of American children makes it very unlikely that all children need after-school programming or that there is but one brand of after-school programming suitable for all youth. We discuss the numerous developmental and contextual factors that may influence which children benefit most from after-school programs as well as the nature of the after-school programs most beneficial to children's needs. The value of utilizing an ecological and developmental perspective to after-school program evaluation are presented, including the need for improved research designs and more detailed analyses of program type and services as well as a more complete determination of which children benefit the most from after-school participation.

after-school programsyouthdevelopmental trajectoriesschoolscontextual factors

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nathaniel R. Riggs
  • Mark T. Greenberg

There are no affiliations available