Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Cite this article as: Willett, E.V., Smith, A.G., Dovey, G.J. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2004) 15: 771. doi:10.1023/B:CACO.0000043427.77739.60 Abstract Objective: The aim was to test whether non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is associated with smoking or alcohol. Methods: A case-control study recruited NHL cases aged 18-64 in parts of England between 1998 and 2001. One control was matched to each case on sex, date of birth and area of residence. Self-reported histories of tobacco and alcohol consumption were collected during face-to-face interviews. Results: Among 700 cases and 915 controls, no association of smoking with the risk of NHL was observed [odds ratio (OR)= 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.28]. Risks were not raised with age started smoking, number of years smoked, and number of years stopped smoking. Compared with persons who drank alcohol once or twice a week, neither abstainers (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.64-1.67), nor consumers of alcohol one to five times a year (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 0.95-1.93), one to two times a month (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.87-1.65), three to four times a week (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.62-1.10), or most days (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.70-1.25) increased their risk of developing NHL. Average daily volume or high occasional alcohol consumption were not associated with NHL. Conclusions: NHL was not associated with smoking or alcohol, but collaborative studies could further investigate the risks of rarer WHO subtypes following these exposures. tobacco alcohol non-Hodgkin lymphoma epidemiology case-control study References
Hersey P, Prendergast D, Edwards A (1983)Effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system.Follow-up studies in normal subjects after cessation of smoking.Med J Aust 2:425-429.
Mufti SI, Prabhala R, Moriguchi S, Sipes IG, Watson RR (1988) Functional and numerical alterations induced by ethanol in the cellular immune system.Immunopharmacology 15:85-93.
Percival SS, Sims CA (2000)Wine modi es the effects of alcohol on immune cells of mice.J Nutr 130:1091-1094.
Meliska CJ, Stunkard ME, Gilbert DG, Jensen RA, Martinko JM (1995)Immune function in cigarette smokers who quit smoking for 31 days.J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:901-910.
McAllister-Sistilli CG, Caggiula AR, Knopf S, Rose CA, Miller AL, Donny EC (1998)The effects of nicotine on the immune system. Psychoneuroendocrinology 23:175-187.
Richards SJ, Jack AS (2003)The development of integrated haematopathology laboratories:a new approach to the diagnosis of leukaemia and lymphoma.Clin Lab Haematol 25:337-342.
Fritz A, Percy C, Jack A,et al.(2000)International Classi cation for Diseases for Oncology.Geneva: World Health Organisation.
Inter-departmental Working Group (1995).Sensible Drinking. London: Department of Health.
Rehm J, Green eld TK, Rogers JD (2001)Average volume of alcohol consumption,patterns of drinking,and all-cause mortality: results from the US National Alcohol Survey.Am J Epidemiol 153: 64-71.
Shaper AG (1995)The''unhealthy abstainers''question is still important.Addiction 90:488-490.
Townsend P, Phillimore P, Beattie A (1988)Health and Depriva-tion:Inequality and the North.London: Croom Helm.
Breslow NE, Day NE (1980)Statistical Methods in Cancer Research.Vol.1-The Analysis of Case-Control Studies.Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
StataCorp (2003).Stata Statistical Software:Release 8.2.College Station,Texas: Stata Corporation.
Paffenbarger RS Jr, Wing AL, Hyde RT (1978)Characteristics in youth predictive of adult-onset malignant lymphomas,mel-anomas,and leukemias:brief communication.J Natl Cancer Inst 60:89-92.
Tavani A, Negri E, Franceschi S, Serraino D, La Vecchia C (1994) Smoking habits and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma:a case-control study in northern Italy.Prev Med23:447-452.
McLaughlin JK, Hrubec Z, Blot WJ,Fraumeni JF Jr (1995) Smoking and cancer mortality among US veterans:a 26-year follow-up.Int J Cancer 60:190-193.
Siemiatycki J, Krewski D, Franco E, Kaiserman M (1995) Associations between cigarette smoking and each of 21 types of cancer:a multi-site case-control study.Int J Epidemiol 24:504-514.
Nelson RA, Levine AM, Marks G, Bernstein L (1997)Alcohol, tobacco and recreational drug use and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Br J Cancer 76:1532-1537.
Freedman DS, Tolbert PE,Coates R,Brann EA, Kjeldsberg CR (1998)Relation of cigarette smoking to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among middle-aged men.Am J Epidemiol 148:833-841.
Fabbro-Peray P, Daures JP, Rossi JF (2001)Environmental risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma:a population-based case-control study in Languedoc-Roussillon,France.Cancer Causes Control 12:201-212.
Morton LM, Holford TR, Leaderer B,et al.(2003)Cigarette smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes among women.Br J Cancer 89:2087-2092.
Brown LM, Everett GD, Gibson R, Burmeister LF, Schuman LM, Blair A (1992)Smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma.Cancer Causes Control 3:49-55.
Linet MS, McLaughlin JK, Hsing AW,et al.(1992)Is cigarette smoking a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or multiple myeloma?Results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study. Leuk Res 16:621-624.
Miligi L, Seniori CA, Crosignani P,et al.(1999)Occupational, environmental,and life-style factors associated with the risk of hematolymphopoietic malignancies in women.Am J Ind Med36:60-69.
Cartwright RA, McKinney PA, O'Brien C,et al.(1988)Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma:case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.Leuk Res 12:81-88.
De Stefani E, Fierro L, Barrios E, Ronco A (1998)Tobacco, alcohol,diet and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma:a case-control study in Uruguay.Leuk Res 22:445-452.
Herrinton LJ, Friedman GD (1998)Cigarette smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:25-28.
Parker AS, Cerhan JR, Dick F,et al.(2000)Smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in a cohort of older women. Leuk Lymph 37:341-349.
Stagnaro E, Ramazzotti V, Crosignani P,et al.(2001)Smoking and hematolymphopoietic malignancies.Cancer Causes Control 12:325-334.
Anonymous (1982)National Cancer Institute sponsored study of classi cations of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas:summary and descrip-tion of a working formulation for clinical usage.The Non-Hodgkin's LymphomaPathologic Classi cation Project.Cancer 49:2112-2135.
Pittaluga S, Bijnens L, Teodorovic I,et al.(1996)Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classi cation of Lymphoid Neoplasms:a comparison with the Working Formulation.Blood 87:4358-4367.
Herrinton LJ (1998)Epidemiology of the Revised European-American Lymphoma Classi cation subtypes.Epidemiol Rev 20: 187-203.
Brown LM, Gibson R, Burmeister LF, Schuman LM, Everett GD, Blair A (1992)Alcohol consumption and risk of leukemia,non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,and multiple myeloma.Leuk Res 16:979-984.
Chiu BC, Cerhan JR, Gapstur SM,et al.(1999)Alcohol con-sumption and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a cohort of older women.Br J Cancer 80:1476-1482.
Holly EA, Lele C, Bracci PM, McGrath MS (1999)Case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among women and heterosex-ual men in the San Francisco Bay Area,California.Am J Epidemiol 150:375-389.
Chiu BC, Weisenburger DD, Cantor KP,et al.(2002)Alcohol consumption,family history of hematolymphoproliferative cancer, and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in men.Ann Epidemiol 12:309-315.
Briggs NC, Levine RS, Bobo LD, Haliburton WP, Brann EA, Hennekens CH (2002)Wine drinking and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in the United States:a population-based case-control study.Am J Epidemiol 156:454-462.
Morton LM, Holford TR, Leaderer B,et al.(2003)Alcohol use and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among Connecticut women (United States).Cancer Causes Control 14:687-694.
Tavani A, Gallus S, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S (2001)Alcohol drinking and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Eur J Clin Nutr 55: 824-826.
Franceschi S, Serraino D, Carbone A, Talamini R, La Vecchia C (1989)Dietary factors and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma:a case-control study in the northeastern part of Italy.Nutr Cancer 12: 333-341.
Tavani A, Pregnolato A, Negri E et al.(1997)Diet and risk of lymphoid neoplasms and soft tissue sarcomas.Nutr Cancer 27: 256-260.
Franceschi S, Serraino D, Bidoli E,et al.(1989)The epidemiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the north-east of Italy:a hospital-based case-control study.Leuk Res 13:465-472.
Rothman KJ, Greenland S (1998)Modern Epidemiology.Lippin-cott-Raven Publishers.
Dawson DA (1998)Measuring alcohol consumption:limitations and prospects for improvement.Addiction 93:965-968.
McNally RJ, Rowland D, Roman E, Cartwright RA (1997)Age and sex distributions of hematological malignancies in the UK. Hematol Oncol 15:173-189.
Walker A, O'Brien M, Traynor J, Fox K, Goddard E, Foster K (2002)Smoking.Living in Britain:Results from the 2001 General Household Survey.London: HMSO,pp.115-138.
Walker A, O'Brien M, Traynor J, Fox K, Goddard E, Foster K (2002)Drinking.Living in Britain:Results from the 2001 General Household Survey.London: HMSOpp.139-162.
Kuper H, Boffetta P, Adami HO (2002)Tobacco use and cancer causation:association by tumour type.J Intern Med 252:206-224.
Ringborg U (1998)Alcohol and risk of cancer.Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22:323S-328S.
Boffetta P, Linet M, Armstrong B (2003).The InterLymph collaboration:a consortium of molecular epidemiological studies of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 44:1579.
© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004