Alcohol Drinking May Increase Risk of Breast Cancer in Men: A European Population-Based Case–Control Study
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Objective: It has been estimated that alcohol drinking increases the risk of breast cancer in women by approximately 7% for each increment of 10 g alcohol per day. However, the few studies conducted on breast cancer among men have failed to detect an association with quantitative measures of alcohol drinking, even if the alcohol intake is generally higher in men than in women. On the other hand, increased risks of male breast cancer were inconsistently reported in alcoholics or patients with liver cirrhosis. We have investigated the role of alcohol drinking in male breast cancer using data collected in a population-based case–control study on seven rare cancers, conducted in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden.
Methods: The cases were 74 histologically verified male breast cancer patients aged 35–70 years. The controls (n = 1432) were selected from population registers, and frequency-matched to the cases by age group and geographic area. To check for consistency, a separate analysis was conducted using as controls the patients with a rare cancer other than male breast recruited simultaneously in the European study (n = 519 men).
Results: Based on population controls, the risk of developing breast cancer in men increased by 16%(95% CI: 7–26%) per 10 g alcohol /day (p < 0.001). An odds ratio of 5.89 (95% CI: 2.21-15.69) was observed for alcohol intake greater than 90 g per day, as compared with light consumers ( < 15 g per day). Similar associations were observed when other rare cancers patients were used as controls.
Conclusion: We found that the relative risk of breast cancer in men is comparable to that in women for alcohol intakes below 60 g per day. It continues to increase at high consumption levels not usually studied in women.
- Collaborative group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (2002) Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer-collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58 515 women with breast cancer and 95, 067 women without the disease.Br J Cancer 87: 1234–1245.
- Mabuchi K, Bross DS, Kessler II (1985) Risk factors for male breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 74: 371–375.
- Casagrande JT, Hanisch R, Pike MC et al. (1988) A case-control study of male breast cancer. Cancer Res 48: 1326–1330.
- Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Cocco P et al. (1998)Risk factors for male breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 9: 269–275. CrossRef
- Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB, Jimenez LM et al. (1999) The relationship between diet and breast cancer in men (United States).Cancer Cause Control 10: 107–113. CrossRef
- Johnson KC, Pan S, Mao Y (2002) Risk factors for male breast cancer in Canada}, 1994-1998. Eur J Cancer Prev 11: 253–263.
- Petridou E, Giokas G, Kuper H et al. (2000) Endocrine correlates of male breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Athens, Greece.Br J Cancer 83: 1234–1237.
- Sasco AJ, Lowenfels AB, Paskerdejong P. (1993) Review Article-Epidemiology of male breast cancer-A Meta-analysis of published case-control studies and discussion of selected aetiological Factors. Int J Cancer 53: 538–549.
- Couch FJ, Farid LM, DeShano ML et al. (1996) BRCA2 germline mutations in male breast cancer cases and breast cancer families.Nat Genet 13: 123–125.
- Dorgan JF, Baer DJ, Albert PS et al.(2001) (Serum hormones and the alcohol-breast cancer association in postmenopausal women).J Natl Cancer Inst 93: 710–715.
- Weiderpass E, Ye W, Adami HO et al. (2001) Breast cancer risk in male alcoholics in Sweden. Cancer Cause Control 12: 661–664. CrossRef
- Keller AZ. (1967) Demographic, clinical and survivorship characteristics of males with primary cancer of the breast. Am J Epidemiol. 85: 183–199.
- Olsson H, Ranstam J (1988) Head trauma and exposure to prolactin-elevating drugs as risk factors for male breast cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst 80: 679–683.
- Lenfant-Pejovic MH, Mlika-Cabanne N, Bouchardy C et al. (1990) Risk factors for male breast cancer: a Franco-Swiss casecontrol study. Int J Cancer 45: 661–665.
- Sorensen HT, Friis S, Olsen JH et al. (1998) Risk of breast cancer in men with liver cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol 93: 231–233. CrossRef
- WHO (1999) Global Status Report On Alcohol Geneva, World Health Organization, pp. 1–376.
- Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Ascherio A et al. (1995) Alcohol, lowmethionine-low-folate diets, and risk of colon cancer in men.J Natl Cancer Inst. 87: 265–273.
- Tuyns AJ, Esteve J, Raymond L et al. (1988) Cancer of the larynx/ hypopharynx, tobacco and alcohol: IARC international casecontrol study in Turin and Varese (Italy), Zaragoza and Navarra (Spain), Geneva (Switzerland) and Calvados (France). Int J Cancer. 41: 483–491.
- Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG (1997) Lifelong teetotallers, exdrinkers and drinkers: mortality and the incidence of major coronary heart disease events in middle-aged British men. Int J Epidemiol 26: 523–531.
- STATA. StataCorp (2001). Stata Statistical Software: Release 7.0. College Station, TX: Stata Corporation.
- Morabia A (2002) Smoking (active and passive) and breast cancer: epidemiologic evidence up to June 2001. Environ Mol Mutagen 39: 89–95.
- Macera CA, Jackson KL, Davis DR et al. (1990) Patterns of nonresponse to a mail survey. J Clin Epidemiol. 43: 1427–1430.
- O'Neill TW, Marsden D, Silman AJ (1995) Differences in the characteristics of responders and non-responders in a prevalence survey of vertebral osteoporosis. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group. Osteoporos Int 5: 327–334.
- Hill A, Roberts J, Ewings P et al. (2000) Non-response bias in a lifestyle survey. J Public Health Med 19: 203–207.
- Kaerlev L, Teglbjaerg PS, Sabroe S et al.(2000) Is there an association between alcohol intake or smoking and small bowel adenocarcinoma? Results from a European multi-center casecontrol study}. Cancer Causes Control 11: 791–797
- Thomas DB, Jimenez LM, Mctiernan A et al. (1992) Breast cancer in men-risk factors with hormonal implications. Am J Epidemiol 135: 734–748.
- Ewertz M, Holmberg L, Tretli S et al. (2001) Risk factors for male breast cancer-a case-control study from Scandinavia. Acta Oncol 40: 467–471.
- Becker U, Gronbaek M, Johansen D et al. (2002) Lower risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis in wine drinkers. Hepatology 35: 868–875. CrossRef
- Kuper H, Ye W, Weiderpass E et al. (2000) Alcohol and breast cancer risk: the alcoholism paradox. Br J Cancer 83: 949–951. CrossRef
- Alcohol Drinking May Increase Risk of Breast Cancer in Men: A European Population-Based Case–Control Study
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume 15, Issue 6 , pp 571-580
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- alcohol drinking
- breast neoplasms
- case–control studies
- risk factors
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. INSERM Unité, 88/IFR69, Saint-Maurice, France
- 2. INSERM Unité 170, 16 avenue Paul-Vaillant Couturier, 94807, Villejuif Cedex, France
- 3. University of Aarhus, Denmark
- 4. University of Copenhagen, Denmark
- 5. Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, CERMS and Centre for Oncologic Prevention, University of Turin, Italy
- 6. Bremen Institute for Prevention Research and Social Medicine, University of Bremen, Germany
- 7. Hamburg Cancer Registry, Germany
- 8. Isère Cancer Registry, Grenoble and ‘Réseau FRANCIM’-, Toulouse, France
- 9. University of Lund, Sweden
- 10. Institute of Pathology, Aalborg, Denmark
- 11. Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padova, Italy
- 12. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden