, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 425-438

Trees, Renormalization and Differential Equations

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


The Butcher group and its underlying Hopf algebra of rooted trees were originally formulated to describe Runge–Kutta methods in numerical analysis. In the past few years, these concepts turned out to have far-reaching applications in several areas of mathematics and physics: they were rediscovered in noncommutative geometry, they describe the combinatorics of renormalization in quantum field theory. The concept of Hopf algebra is introduced using a familiar example and the Hopf algebra of rooted trees is defined. Its role in Runge–Kutta methods, renormalization theory and noncommutative geometry is described.