Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 13, Issue 9, pp 1647–1658

Factors influencing the social acceptability of large carnivore behaviours


DOI: 10.1023/B:BIOC.0000029328.81255.38

Cite this article as:
Kleiven, J., Bjerke, T. & Kaltenborn, B.P. Biodiversity and Conservation (2004) 13: 1647. doi:10.1023/B:BIOC.0000029328.81255.38


A survey on attitudes toward large carnivores was conducted in a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n = 3134). People were asked about the acceptability of carnivores living in remote wilderness, close to where people live, killing livestock, killing pets, or threatening humans. Large differences in acceptability appeared across the five situations. Wolves and bears were less acceptable than lynx and wolverines when observed close to where people live. Negative associations were found between acceptability and lack of personal control, economic loss, and respondents' age. Acceptability was higher among males than among females, and higher among urban than among rural residents. The results showed that general measures of attitudes alone toward large carnivores were of limited value in wildlife management. The situational and social specificity of these attitudes should be given more attention.

AttitudesLarge carnivoresManagement implicationsSituation specificitySocio-political context

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jo Kleiven
    • 1
  • Tore Bjerke
    • 2
  • Bjørn P. Kaltenborn
    • 2
  1. 1.Lillehammer CollegeLillehammerNorway
  2. 2.Division for Man—Environment StudiesNorwegian Institute for Nature ResearchLillehammerNorway