Pastoralism, plant conservation, and conflicts on proliferation of Himalayan knotweed in high altitude protected areas of the Western Himalaya, India
- Chandra Prakash Kala
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The conservation policy of banning pastoral grazing, and subsequently emerging conflicts between conservationists and pastoral communities regarding the proliferation of Himalayan knotweed (Polygonum polystachyum), was studied in the Valley of Flowers National Park, a high altitude protected area of the Western Himalaya, India. A total of 10 habitat types identified in the study area were sampled using quadrats along an altitudinal gradient between 3000 and 4500 m. Plant species richness decreases with altitude and also varies across habitat types. The highest density of P. polystachyum and its associated species, Impatiens sulcata, was found between 3300 and 3500 m in the disturbed habitat types, viz., bouldery areas, fragmented treeline zone, avalanche-prone areas and eroded slopes. Eradication of P. polystachyum from the national park by managers is not going to serve any meaningful purpose to the long-term conservation; rather it initiates soil erosion and instability, hindering the establishment of natural plant communities.
- Chakravarty-Kaul M. 1998. Transhumance and customary pastoral rights in Himachal Pradesh: claiming for high pastures for gaddis. Mountain Research and Development 18: 5–17.
- Davis M.A., Grime J.P. and Thompson K. 2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. Journal of Ecology 88: 528–534.
- Farooquee N.A. 1994. Transhumance in the central Himalaya: a study of its impact on environment. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Political Science, H.N.B Garhwal University, Srinagar, India.
- Forbes B.C., Ebersole J.J. and Strandberg B. 2001. Anthropogenic disturbance and patch dynamics in circumpolar arctic ecosystem. Conservation Biology 15: 954–968.
- Goodwin B.J., McAllister A.J. and Fahrig L. 1999. Predicting invasiveness of plant species based on biological information. Conservation Biology 13: 422–426.
- Grime J.P. 1997. Biodiversity and ecosystem functions: the debate deepens. Science 277: 1260–1261.
- Harrison S., Rice K. and Maron J. 2001. Habitat patchiness promotes invasion by alien grasses on serpentine soil. Biological Conservation 100: 45–53.
- Higgins S.I., Richardson D.M., Cowling R.M. and Trinder-Smith T.H. 1998. Predicting the landscapescale distribution of alien plants and their threat to plant diversity. Conservation Biology 13: 303–313.
- Hoon B. 1996. Living on the Move: Bhotiyas of the Kumaon Himalaya. Sage Publications, New Delhi, India.
- Huston M.A. 1994. Biological Diversity: The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
- Kala C.P. 1998. Ecology and conservation of alpine meadows in the Valley of Flowers National Park, Garhwal Himalaya. Ph.D. Thesis, Forest Research Institute (Deemed University), Dehradun, India.
- Kala C.P. 1999. Phenology of alpine plants in the Valley of Flowers National Park and Hemkund, Western Himalaya. The Indian Forester 125: 581–590.
- Kala C.P. 2002. Indigenous knowledge of Bhotiya tribal community on wool dyeing and its present status in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Current Science 83: 814–817.
- Kutiel P., Eden E. and Zhevelev Y. 2000. Effects of experimental trampling and off road motorcycle traffic on soil and vegetation of stabilized coastal dunes, Israel. Environmental Conservation 27: 14–23.
- Mauchamp A. 1997. Threats from alien plant species in the Galapagos Islands. Conservation Biology 11: 260–263.
- Misra R. 1968. Ecology Workshop. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., Calcutta, India.
- Mueller-Dombois D. and Ellenberg E. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
- Naithani H.B., Negi J.D.S., Thapliyal R.C. and Pokhriyal T.C. 1992. Valley of Flowers: needs for conservation or preservation. The Indian Forester 118: 371–378.
- Planty-Tabacchi A.M., Tabacchi E., Naiman R.J., Deferrari C. and Decamps H. 1996. Invasibility of species-rich communities in Riparian zones. Conservation Biology 10: 598–607.
- Polunin O. and Stainton A. 1984. Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford Press, New Delhi, India.
- Rajmanek M. and Richardson D.M. 1996. What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77: 1655–1661.
- Ram J. and Singh S.P. 1994. Ecology and conservation of alpine meadows in central Himalaya, India. In: Pangtey Y.P.S. and Rawal R.S. (eds), High Altitudes of the Himalaya. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India, pp. 33–35.
- Richardson D.M. 1998. Forestry trees as invasive alien. Conservation Biology 12: 18–26.
- Saberwal V.K. 1996. Pastoral politics, gaddi grazing, degradation, and biodiversity conservation in Himachal Pradesh, India. Conservation Biology 11: 741–749.
- Shannon C.E. and Weaver W. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.
- Singh T.V. and Kaur J. 1983. Studies in Eco-development: Himalayan Mountains and Men. Print House, Lucknow, India.
- Vila M. and Pujadas J. 2001. Land-use and socio-economic correlates of plant invasions in European and North African countries. Biological Conservation 100: 397–401.
- Wadia D. 1966. Geology of India. Macmillan, London.
- Pastoralism, plant conservation, and conflicts on proliferation of Himalayan knotweed in high altitude protected areas of the Western Himalaya, India
Biodiversity & Conservation
Volume 13, Issue 5 , pp 985-995
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Altitudinal gradient
- Polygonum polystachyum
- Protected areas
- Western Himalaya
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora, 263643, India