, Volume 85, Issue 4, pp 305-315

Putative lipoproteins of Streptococcus agalactiae identified by bioinformatic genome analysis

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Abstract

Streptococcus agalactiae is a significant pathogen causing invasive disease in neonates and thus an understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of this organism is of importance. N-terminal lipidation is a major mechanism by which bacteria can tether proteins to membranes. Lipidation is directed by the presence of a cysteine-containing ‘lipobox’ within specific signal peptides and this feature has greatly facilitated the bioinformatic identification of putative lipoproteins. We have designed previously a taxon-specific pattern (G+LPP) for the identification of Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins, based on the signal peptides of experimentally verified lipoproteins (Sutcliffe I.C. and Harrington D.J. Microbiology 148: 2065–2077). Patterns searches with this pattern and other bioinformatic methods have been used to identify putative lipoproteins in the recently published genomes of S. agalactiae strains 2603/V and NEM316. A core of 39 common putative lipoproteins was identified, along with 5 putative lipoproteins unique to strain 2603/V and 2 putative lipoproteins unique to strain NEM316. Thus putative lipoproteins represent ca. 2% of the S. agalactiae proteome. As in other Gram-positive bacteria, the largest functional category of S. agalactiae lipoproteins is that predicted to comprise of substrate binding proteins of ABC transport systems. Other roles include lipoproteins that appear to participate in adhesion (including the previously characterised Lmb protein), protein export and folding, enzymes and several species-specific proteins of unknown function. These data suggest lipoproteins may have significant roles that influence the virulence of this important pathogen.