Reliable Circuit Techniques for Low-Voltage Analog Design in Deep Submicron Standard CMOS: A Tutorial
- Cite this article as:
- Fayomi, C.J.B., Sawan, M. & Roberts, G.W. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing (2004) 39: 21. doi:10.1023/B:ALOG.0000016641.83563.96
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We present in this paper an overview of circuit techniques dedicated to design reliable low-voltage (1-V and below) analog functions in deep submicron standard CMOS processes. The challenges of designing such low-voltage and reliable analog building blocks are addressed both at circuit and physical layout levels. State-of-the-art circuit topologies and techniques (input level shifting, bulk and current driven, DTMOS), used to build main analog modules (operational amplifier, analog CMOS switches) are covered with the implementation of MOS capacitors.