, Volume 254, Issue 1-2, pp 353-358

Co-inheritance of specific genotypes of HSPG and ApoE gene increases risk of type 2 diabetic nephropathy

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The objective of this paper is to investigate co-inheritance of specific HSPG and ApoE genotypes in the development of Chinese type 2 diabetic nephropathy. PCR-RFLP was used to detect HSPG and ApoE genotypes in 385 Chinese subjects including 298 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 87 non-diabetic controls (Non-DM). The T2DM group was subdivided into patients with (TDN; n = 218) and without diabetic nephropathy (Non-DN; n = 80). The latter group was further subdivided into groups of patients with microalbuminuria nephropathy (DN-1; n = 129) and severe diabetic nephropathy (DN-2; n = 89). We then compared the relative frequencies of various HSPG and ApoE genotypes and alleles among the groups, searching for predictive trends. The T allele of the HSPG gene occurred more frequently in the DN-2 group than in the Non-DN or DN-1 or groups, their (Fisher's exact p was 1.05 × 10−3 and 6.58 × 10−6; odds ratios were 2.09 (95% CI 1.32–3.30) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.64–3.74), respectively. The E2 allele of the ApoE gene occurred more frequently in the T2DM than in the Non-DM group, the Fisher's exact p was 0.0087; odds ratio was 3.45 (95% CI 1.30–9.81). Genotype analysis showed that the TT or TG of HSPG gene were paired with the E2/2 or E2/3 of ApoE gene significantly more frequently in the TDN group than in the Non-DN group, with an odds ratio of 3.03 (95% CI 1.03–8.90). There was no significant differences in other combinations of genotypes in HSPG and ApoE genes between TDN and Non-DN group. These results suggest that the HSPG T allele is a risk factor for the development of severe diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients, and that the ApoE E2 allele is a risk factor for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese general population. In addition, we find that co-inheritance of T/E2 confers a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus progression to diabetic nephropathy in Chinese.