Abiotic Synthesis of Guanine with High-Temperature Plasma
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The origin of guanine has been unknown, thoughthere are some reports concerning its abiotic synthesis. Weshow here that guanine, as well as uracil and cytosine, aresynthesized from a 90%N2–10%CO–H2O gas mixture via a complex organic product produced with the high-temperature and rapidquenching technique. This result implies that a large amountof complex organic matter including precursors of bioorganiccompounds might have been produced on the primitive earthafter cometary impacts.
Bar-Nun, A., Bar-Nun, N., Bauer, S. H. and Sagan, C.: 1970, Shock Synthesis of Aminmo Acids in Simulated Primitive Environments, Science 168, 470–473.
Biver, N., Rauer, H., Despois, D., Moreno, R., Paubert, G., Bockelee-Morvan, D., Colom, P., Crovisier, J., Gerard, E. and Jorda, L.: 1996, Substantial Outgassing of CO from Comet Hal-Bopp at Large Heliocentric Distance, Nature 380, 137–139.
Canuto, V. M., Levine, J. S., Augustsson, T. R., Imhoff, C. L. and Giampapa, M. S.: 1983, The Young Sun and the Atmosphere and Photochemistry of the Early Earth, Nature 305, 281–286.
Chameides, W. L. and Walker, J. C. G.: 1981, Rates of Fixation by Lightning of Carbon and Nitrogen in Possible Primitive Atmospheres, Origins Life 11, 291–320.
Chyba, C. F.: 1987, The Cometary Contribution to the Oceans of Primitive Earth, Nature 330, 632–635.
Chyba, C. F.: 1990, Impact Delivery and Erosion of Planetary Oceans in the Early Inner Solar System, Nature 343, 129–133.
Chyba, C. and Sagan, C.: 1991, Electrical Energy Sources for Organic Synthesis on the Early Earth, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 21, 3–17.
Chyba, C. and Sagan, C.: 1992, Endogenous Production, Exogenous Delivery and Impact-Shock Synthesis of Organic Molecules: An Inventory for the Origins of Life, Nature 355, 125–132.
Emiliani, C., Kraus, E. B. and Shoemaker, E. M.: 1981, Sudden Death at the End of the Mesozoic, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 55, 317–334.
Fegley Jr., B., Prinn, R. G., Hartman, H. and Watkins, G. H.: 1986, Chemical Effects of Large Impacts on the Earth's Primitive Atmosphere, Nature 319, 305–308.
Gilvarry, J. J. and Hochstim, A. R.: 1963, Possible Role of Meteorites in the Origin of Life, Nature 197, 624–625.
Hayatsu, R., Studier, M. H., Matsuoka, S. and Anders, E.: 1972, Origin of Organic Matter in Early Solar System-Catalytic Synthesis of Nitriles, Nitrogen Bases and Porphyrin-Like Pigments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 36, 555–571.
Hayatsu, R., Studier, M. H., Oda, A., Fuse, K. and Anders, E.: 1968, Origin of Organic Matter in Early Solar System-Nitrogen Compounds, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 32, 175–190.
Jewitt, D., Senay, M. and Matthews, H.: 1996, Observations of Carbon Monoxide in Comet Hale-Bopp, Science 271, 1110–1113.
Kasting, J. F.: 1990, Bolide Impacts and the Oxidation State of Carbon in the Earth's Early Atmosphere, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 20, 199–231.
Kasting, J. F.: 1993, Earth's Early Atmosphere, Science 259, 920–926.
Kobayashi, K. and Tsuji, T.: 1997, Abiotic Synthesis of Uracil from Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen and Water by Proton Irradiation, Chem. Lett., 903–904.
Kobayashi, K., Kaneko, T., Saito, T. and Oshima, T.: 1998, Amino Acid Formation in Gas Mixtures by High Energy Particle Irradiation, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 28, 155–165.
Kobayashi, K., Kaneko, T. and Saito, T.: 1999, Characterization of Complex Organic Compounds Formed in Simulated Planetary Atmospheres by the Action of High Energy Particles, Adv. Space Res. 24, 461–464.
Kuriki, K. and Ishikawa, Y.: 1982, Laboratory Simulation of Interstellar Chemical Evolution, Ap. J. 259, 411–422.
Levine, J. S., Augustsson, T. R. and Natarajan, M.: 1982, The Prebiological Paleoatmosphere: Stability and Composition, Origins Life 12, 245–259.
Levy, M., Miller, S. L. and Oro, J.: 1999, Production of Guanine from NH4CN Polymerizations, J. Mol. Evol. 49, 165–168.
Maher, K. A. and Stevenson, D. J.: 1988, Impact Frustration of the Origin of Life, Nature 331, 612–614.
McKay, C. P. and Borucki, W. J.: 1997, Organic Synthesis in Experimental Impact Shocks, Science 276, 390–392.
McKay, C. P., Scattergood, T. W., Pollack, J. B., Borucki, W. J. and Ghyseghem, H. T. V.: 1988, High-Temperature Shock Formation of N2 and Organics on Primordial Titan, Nature 332, 520–522.
Miyakawa, S., Kobayashi, K. and Sawaoka, A. B.: 1999a, Amino Acid Synthesis from CO-N2 and CO-N2-H2 Gas Mixture Via Complex Organic Compounds, Adv. Space Res. 24, 465–468.
Miyakawa, S., Murasawa, K., Kobayashi, K. and Sawaoka, A. B.: 1999b, Cytosine and Uracil Synthesis by Quenching with High-Temperature Plasma, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 8144–8145.
Miyakawa, S., Sawaoka, A. B., Ushio, K. and Kobayashi, K.: 1999c, Mechanisms of Amino Acid Formation Using Optical Emission Spectroscopy, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6853–6857.
Miyakawa, S., Tamura, H., Kobayashi, K. and Sawaoka, A. B.: 1997, New Application of a Magneto-Plasma Dynamic Arc-Jet to Amino Acid Synthesis, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 4481–4485.
Miyakawa, S., Tamura, H., Kobayashi, K. and Sawaoka, A. B.: 1998, Amino Acid Synthesis from an Amorphous Substance Composed of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 990–992.
Melosh, H. J. and Vickery, A. M.: 1989, Impact Erosion of the Primordial Atmosphere of Mars, Nature 338, 487–489.
Mojzsis, S. J., Arrhenius, G., McKeegan, K. D., Harrison, T. M., Nutman, A. P. and Friend, C. R. L.: 1996, Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million Years Ago, Nature 384, 55–59.
Mukhin, L. M., Gerasimov, M. V. and Safonova, E. N.: 1989, Origin of Precursors of Organic Molecules During Evaporation of Meteorites and Mafic Terrestrial Rocks, Nature 340, 46–48.
Oberbeck, V. R., Mckay, C. P., Scattergood, T. W., Carle, G. C. and Valentin, J. R.: 1989, The Role of Cometary Particle Coalescence in Chemical Evolution, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 19, 39–55.
Rao, V. V., MacKay, D. and Trass, O.: 1967, A Shock Tube Study of the High Temperature Reactions of Nitrogen with Hydrocarbons, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 45, 61–66.
Scattergood, T. W., McKay, C. P., Borucki, W. J., Giver, L. P., Ghyseghem, H. V., Parris, J. E. and Miller, S. L.: 1989, Production of Organic Compounds in Plasma: A Comparison Among Electric Sparks, Laser-Induced Plasmas, and UV Light, Icarus 81, 413–428.
Schidlowski, M.: 1988, A 3,800-Million Year Isotopic Record of Life from Carbon in Sedimentary Rocks, Nature 333, 313–318.
Schlesinger, G. and Miller, S. L.: 1973, Equilibrium and Kinetics of Glyconitrile Formation in Aqueous Solution, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 3729–3735.
Schlesinger, G. and Miller, S. L.: 1983a, Prebiotic Synthesis in Atmospheres Containing CH4, CO, and CO2. Amino Acids, J. Mol. Evol. 19, 376–382.
Schlesinger, G. and Miller, S. L.: 1983b, Prebiotic Synthesis in Atmospheres Containing CH4, CO, and CO2. Hydrogen Cyanide, Formaldehyde and Ammonia, J. Mol. Evol. 19, 383–390.
Schoph, J. W.: 1993, Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex Chert: New Evidence of the Anqituity of Life, Science 260, 640–646.
Senay, M. C. and Jewitt, D.: 1994, Coma Formation Driven by Carbon Monoxide Release from Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, Nature 371, 229–231.
Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K. J., Kasting, J. F. and Morowitz, H. J.: 1989, Annihilation of Ecosystems by Large Asteroid Impacts on the Early Earth, Nature 342, 139–142.
Stribling, R. and Miller, S. L.: 1987, Energy Yields for Hydrogen Cyanide and Formaldehyde Syntheses: The HCN and Amino Acid Concentrations in the Primitive Ocean, Origins Life 17, 261–273.
Tahara, H., Yasui, H., Kagaya, Y. and Yoshikawa, T.: Experimental and Theoretical Researches on Arc Structure in a Self-Field Thruster, AIAA Paper 87–1093.
Thompson, W. R., Henry, T. J., Schwartz, J. M., Khare, B. N. and Sagan, C.: 1991, Plasma Discharge in N2 +CH4 at Low Pressures: Experimental Results and Applications to Titan, Icarus 90, 57–73.
Wilson, P. D. and Sagan, C.: 1997, Nature and Source of Organic Matter in the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Jovian Impact Blemishes, Icarus 129, 207–216.
Yuasa, S., Flory, D., Basile, B. and Oro, J.: 1984, Abiotic Synthesis of Purines and Other Heterocyclic Compounds by the Action of Electrical Discharges, J. Mol. Evol. 21, 76–80.
- Abiotic Synthesis of Guanine with High-Temperature Plasma
Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere
Volume 30, Issue 6 , pp 557-566
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- abiotic synthesis
- cometary impact
- high-temperature plasma
- magneto-plasma dynamic arc-jet
- origin of life
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan
- 2. Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, 226-8503, Japan
- 3. Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan