Space Science Reviews

, Volume 93, Issue 1, pp 79-105

First online:

Large Scale Modulation: View From the Earth

  • Anatoly BelovAffiliated withInstitute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN)

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The current knowledge and ideas, obtained from groundlevel observations and concerning the solar modulation of cosmic rays, are reviewed. The following topics are discussed: observations of the cosmic ray modulation at the Earth and main characteristics of the accumulated experimental data; manifestations of the solar magnetic cycle in cosmic rays; the effect of hysteresis and its relation to the size of the heliosphere; the rigidity spectrum of long-term cosmic ray variations; the influence of the sporadic effects on long-term modulation; long-term variations of cosmic ray anisotropy and gradients; the place of groundlevel observations in current studies of cosmic ray modulation and their future prospects. Particular consideration is given to the correlation of long-term cosmic ray variations with different solar-heliospheric parameters, and to empirical models of cosmic ray modulation.