Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 11, Issue 10, pp 933–939

Effects of supplemental alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on urinary tract cancer: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial (Finland)

  • Jarmo Virtamo
  • Brenda K. Edwards
  • Mikko Virtanen
  • Philip R. Taylor
  • Nea Malila
  • Demetrius Albanes
  • Jussi K. Huttunen
  • Anne M. Hartman
  • Päivi Hietanen
  • Hanna Mäenpää
  • Leopold Koss
  • Stig Nordling
  • Olli P. Heinonen
Article

DOI: 10.1023/A:1026546803917

Cite this article as:
Virtamo, J., Edwards, B.K., Virtanen, M. et al. Cancer Causes Control (2000) 11: 933. doi:10.1023/A:1026546803917

Abstract

Objectives: Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of vegetables and fruits on urinary tract cancer but the possible protective nutrients are unknown. We studied the effect of alpha-tocopherol (a form of vitamin E) and beta-carotene supplementation on urinary tract cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study.

Methods: A total of 29,133 male smokers aged 50–69 years from southwestern Finland were randomly assigned to receive alpha-tocopherol (50 mg), beta-carotene (20 mg), both agents, or a placebo daily for 5–8 years (median 6.1 years). Incident urothelial cancers (bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis; n = 169) and renal cell cancers (n = 102) were identified through the nationwide cancer registry. The diagnoses were centrally confirmed by review of medical records and pathology specimens. The supplementation effects were estimated using a proportional hazards model.

Results: Neither alpha-tocopherol nor beta-carotene affected the incidence of urothelial cancer, relative risk 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8–1.5) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.7–1.3), respectively, or the incidence of renal cell cancer, relative risk 1.1 (95% CI 0.7–1.6) and 0.8 (95% CI 0.6–1.3), respectively.

Conclusion: Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene has no preventive effect on urinary tract cancers in middle-aged male smokers.

Beta-carotenechemopreventionrandomized controlled trialsrenal cell cancerurothelial cancervitamin E

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jarmo Virtamo
    • 1
  • Brenda K. Edwards
    • 2
  • Mikko Virtanen
    • 1
  • Philip R. Taylor
    • 2
  • Nea Malila
    • 1
  • Demetrius Albanes
    • 2
  • Jussi K. Huttunen
    • 1
  • Anne M. Hartman
    • 2
  • Päivi Hietanen
    • 3
  • Hanna Mäenpää
    • 3
  • Leopold Koss
    • 4
  • Stig Nordling
    • 5
  • Olli P. Heinonen
    • 5
  1. 1.National Public Health InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.National Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Helsinki University HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Montefiore Medical CenterBronxUSA
  5. 5.University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland