, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 247-260

Male Social Behavior and Dominance Hierarchy in the Sulawesi Crested Black Macaque (Macaca nigra)

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In a 6-week study of the social behavior of wild Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra), we found a linear and transitive dominance hierarchy among the six adult males in one social group. Dominance rank, as determined by the direction of supplantations, correlated strongly with percentage of time near more than four neighbors, frequency of grooming received from adult females, and percentage of time with an adult female as nearest neighbor. These results suggest that high-ranking males are socially attractive. Adult females sexually solicited high-ranking males more often than low-ranking males, but frequency of copulation was not correlated with dominance rank. Frequency and intensity of aggression between males are strongly correlated with rank distance, but aggression toward females was greatest for mid-ranking males. Males of all rank displayed significantly more aggression toward sexually receptive females than toward females in other estrous states. These data indicate that male Sulawesi crested black macaques display a social organization similar to that reported for multimale groups in other macaque species rather than the egalitarian social organization described for female Sulawesi macaques.